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    An end-to-end Chinese speech synthesis scheme based on Tacotron 2
    WANG Guo-liang, CHEN Meng-nan, CHEN Lei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (4): 111-119.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.04.011
    Abstract97)   HTML8)    PDF (2100KB)(308)      
    The disruptively design for an end-to-end speech synthesis system Tacotron 2, is currently only available in English. This paper is devoted to implementing several improvements to Tacotron 2 and presents a Chinese speech synthesis scheme, including:a pre-processing module to convert Chinese characters into phonetic characters to address the challenge of Chinese character not corresponding to pronunciation, having multiple tones, and having polyphonic words; a pre-training decoder to achieve better sound quality with less corpus given the lack of existing Chinese training corpus; a strategy of weighting the cross-entropy loss and using the multi-layer perceptron, instead of the linear transformation, to predict stop tokens and to solve the Chinese speech synthesis sudden pause problem; and a multi-head attention mechanism to further improve Chinese speech quality. The experimental comparison of the Mel spectrum and the Mel cepstrum distance (MCD) shows that our work is effective and can make Tacotron 2 adapted to the requirements of Chinese speech synthesis.
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    Characterization of commuting weakly additive maps on a class of algebras
    HUO Dong-hua
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (4): 1-10,18.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.04.001
    Abstract70)   HTML2)    PDF (323KB)(289)      
    Let A be an algebra with unit 1. A map f:AA is a weakly additive map if for every x, yA there exist tx,y, sx,y∈F such that f(x + y)=tx,yf(x) + sx,yf(y). We prove that under some conditions, if f is a commuting map, then there exists λ0(x)∈A and a map λ1 from A into Z(A) such that f(x)=λ0(x)x + λ1(x) for all xA. As an application, a class of commuting weakly additive maps on Mn(F) are characterized.
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    Anti-periodic solutions for a class of nonlinear discrete perturbed systems
    MENG Xin
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (6): 1-6.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.06.001
    Abstract66)   HTML14)    PDF (226KB)(115)      
    In this paper, anti-periodic solutions for a class of nonlinear discrete perturbed systems with exponential dichotomy are studied. By means of the Banach fixed point theorem, new sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of anti-periodic solutions for nonlinear discrete perturbed systems are established. An example is given to illustrate the results we obtained.
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    A Reference Model approach for developing agricultural big data infrastructures
    ZHAO Zhi-ming, LIAO Xiao-feng, WANG Xiao-ling, RUAN Chun-sheng, ZHU Yi-feng, FENG Dong-sheng
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 77-96.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.009
    Abstract53)   HTML0)    PDF (5811KB)(331)      
    Big data infrastructures provide services for the management of data over the course of their lifecycle, and offer users the ability to effectively discover and access data for different application purposes. These emerging infrastructures essentially enable system-level data-centric research; third-party innovation, however, often requires data from different sources. The construction of big data infrastructures faces important interoperability challenges arising from the diverse nature of data acquisition, annotation, and identification performed in different research domains. Moreover, the evolution of different infrastructures is often driven by the specific interests of researchers, in their respective domains, and the constraints of legacy technology. The ENVRI Reference Model (ENVRI RM) is an output of the EU H2020 ENVRI and ENVRI PLUS project, targeting the aforementioned challenges in the context of environmental sciences by modeling environmental research infrastructures with a multi-viewpoints framework; these viewpoints include science, information, computation, engineering, and technology. Each viewpoint describes concrete aspects of a system definition and forms a mechanism to improve the interoperability across the whole system as well as alignment with existing legacy systems. The challenges encountered in the Shanghai Agricultural Big Data Infrastructures construction work are similar to those detected in the ENVRI RM, which provides an ideal place to test the generalizability of the ENVRI RM to other domains. Using the ENVRI RM as a reference, this paper presents an Agricultural Reference Model, which includes the five aforementioned viewpoints, but with consideration of the specifics of the agricultural domain, to address the problems encountered in revising and upgrading the Shanghai Agricultural Big Data Infrastructures. Two use cases are introduced to demonstrate its effectiveness. One is to improve the requirement engineering procedure with the community and role context captured using the Agricultural Reference Model. The other is to upgrade the large volume of existing systems to increase interconnections via the interoperability mechanisms provided by the Agricultural Reference Model.
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    Simulation analysis for remote sensing inversion of wavelength and water depth by the Fast Fourier Transform method
    SHEN Si-min, ZHU Shou-xian, KANG Yan-yan, ZHANG Wen-jing, CAO Guang-song
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 184-194,208.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.020
    Abstract53)   HTML0)    PDF (2538KB)(246)      
    Using the difference in remote sensing reflectivity between wave crest and trough, wavelengths can be inversed by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method to derive the nearshore water depth. Remote sensing images with higher resolution are generally thought to induce less error in marine information inversion. In this study, remote sensing images were replaced by elevation data from ideal equations and numerical simulations to study the effect of data resolution on wavelength inversions and water depths. The results show that low-resolution data result in significant errors in the wavelengths and water depths. But variations in resolution make no difference in reversing the wavelengths and water depths as they reach certain levels. The sub-image size in the FFT method was also studied by simulation analysis. Larger sub-images generate less error in wavelength inversion if the wavelength doesn't vary spatially. On uneven topography, errors from wavelength and water depth inversions are small if the sub-image size is 4-8 times the wavelength and not more than the topography variation; however, when the sub-image is too large or too small, the errors will increase.
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    Effect of egg yolk immunoglobulin on an experimental periodontitis model induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis
    WANG Fang, XU Xiao-chen, WU Wen-hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 131-137.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.014
    Abstract52)   HTML0)    PDF (1651KB)(168)      
    This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of egg yolk Immunoglobulin (IgY) on periodontitis in an established rat periodontitis model through the growth inhibition of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Experimental periodontitis was induced in mice by ligation of their second molar with medical thread and oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontitis rats were randomly divided into control, high-dose, and low-dose groups. Each group was comprised of eight rats. The gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were examined, and an X-ray image and histomorphological section were observed after 28 days. Compared with the control, the scores for PI, GI, and BOP and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly decreased in the IgY-treated groups. X-ray images showed that the tooth gap narrowed considerably. Pathological observation, furthermore, showed that periodontal fibers were neatly arranged, a small amount of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, the alveolar ridge was not absorbed, and alveolar bone increased. In conclusion, specific IgY can treat periodontitis induced by P.gingivalis in an established rat periodontitis model.
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    Evaluation of ecosystem services for urban forests in Shanghai based on a distribution measurement methodology
    HAN Yu-jie, SUN Wen, ZHANG Wen-wen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 147-155.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.016
    Abstract52)   HTML0)    PDF (1858KB)(221)      
    Using continuous observation and the inventory system for forest ecosystems, according to the People's Republic of China standard LY/T 1721-2008 Specifications for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China, combined with forest resource monitoring data from 2016, this study assessed the value of forest ecosystem services in Shanghai. The results showed that the total value of forest ecosystem services in urban forests in Shanghai in 2016 was 12.58 billion yuan and mean value was 127.5 thousand yuan per hectare. The value of the eight service functions was distributed as follows:forest recreation (26.03%), atmosphere environmental purification (22.03%), carbon fixation and oxygen released (20.24%), water conservation (17.14%), biodiversity conservation (9.10%), soil conservation (3.53%), forest nutrition storage (1.84%), contribution of forest to prevent natural calamities(0.09%). From the results of this study, the value of forest recreation was the highest. Forest recreation, atmosphere environmental purification, carbon fixation and oxygen release, and water conservation were the main functions of urban forest services in Shanghai; These features play an important role in building a livable city and establishing "an ecological city".
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    Community structure and gene expression analysis for nitrifier enrichment cultures
    YU Chen-di, HOU Li-jun, ZHENG Yan-ling, LIU Min, YIN Guo-yu, GAO Juan, LIU Cheng, CHANG Yong-kai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 164-173.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.018
    Abstract52)   HTML0)    PDF (1293KB)(190)      
    Nitrifiers were enriched from the tidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Four kinds of nitrifying groups (accounting for 34.7% of the total reads) were detected based on metagenomics, including the recently discovered complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox), strictly nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira, β-proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Comammox accounted for 48% of the detected nitrifiers. In addition, gene expression patterns of the nitrifier group (according to the classification in Evolutionary genealogy of genes:Non-supervised Orthologous Groupsdatabase) were analyzed based on metatranscriptomics. The present study showed the community structure and gene expression characteristics of nitrifiers enriched from the tidal sediments, especially the newly discovered comammox. Results enriched our knowledge about the nitrifying communities of estuarine environment, which have great significance to the further molecular ecology research of the nitrification processes.
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    State of marine microplastic pollution research and the limitations
    LI Dao-ji, Zhu Li-xin, CHANG Si-yuan, ZHANG Feng, WANG Lu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 174-185.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.019
    Abstract52)   HTML0)    PDF (1724KB)(263)      
    Microplastics (less than 5 mm in diameter) are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world's oceans. Marine microplastic pollution has become a global research hotspot and a new frontier in ecological and environmental sciences. The issue has increasingly attracted the attention of scientists, government agencies, and NGOs worldwide. Although the problem of marine plastic pollution was first discovered in the 1970s, it didn't gain attention in the international arena until recent years. Since then, microplastic research has progressed rapidly both globally and in China. However, there are still many problems with the research and response to marine microplastics, requiring further clarification and solutions. This paper first briefly reviews the chronological development of marine microplastic research as well as the role and significance of key events. Thereafter, the paper discusses the state of marine microplastic pollution research and the mitigation efforts in China and abroad, highlighting the current limitations in the research and response to marine plastic and microplastic pollution.
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    A class of delayed HIV-1 infection models with latently infected cells
    YANG Jun-xian, XIE Bao-ying
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (4): 19-32.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.04.003
    Abstract51)   HTML0)    PDF (366KB)(254)      
    A class of delayed HIV-1 infection models with latently infected cells was proposed. The basic reproductive number R0 was defined, and the existence conditions of disease-free equilibrium P0(x0, 0, 0, 0) and chronic-infection equilibrium P*(x*, ω*, y*, v*) were given. First, the local asymptotic stability of infection-free equilibrium and chronicinfection equilibrium was obtained by the linearization method. Further, by constructing the corresponding Lyapunov functions and using LaSalle's invariant principle, it was proved that when the basic reproductive number R0 was less than or equal to unity, the infection-free equilibrium P0(x0, 0, 0, 0) was globally asymptotically stable; moreover, when the basic reproductive number R0 was greater than unity, the chronic-infective equilibrium P*(x*, ω*, y*, v*) was globally asymptotically stable, but the infection-free equilibrium P0(x0, 0, 0, 0) was unstable. The results showed that a latently infected delay and an intracellular delay did not affect the global stability of the model, and numerical simulations were carried out to illustrate the theoretical results.
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    Inverse completion for a class of Hamiltonian matrices
    BAI Xiao-li, ZHANG Lan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 56-62,68.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.006
    Abstract50)   HTML0)    PDF (443KB)(260)      
    In this paper, the inverse completion of a class of Hamiltonian matrices is studied by applying rank theory and invertible conditions for matrices. Taking advantage of the structural characteristics of Hamiltonian matrices, the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions are proved and the expression of solutions are obtained. Furthermore, the conclusions are extended to anti-Hamiltonian matrices, and the corresponding results are obtained. Finally, some examples are used to verify the conclusions.
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    A first principle investigation of organic-inorganic hybrid peroviskite (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4
    XIE Wei-jia, WANG Qian-qian, XIE Wen-hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 122-127.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.013
    Abstract49)   HTML0)    PDF (773KB)(297)      
    The structural and electronic properties of the two-dimensional (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 monolayer were investigated by employing first principle electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory. The optical absorption properties were studied by further analyzing chemical bonding and orbital characteristics. In addition, the influence of a vertical electric field on the electronic structure was also investigated. The results demonstrate that there is a significant external electric field-driven energy gap modulation effect, and that the semiconductor energy gap should be closed when the external electric field is larger than 0.45 V/Å.
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    Research on service requirements and management strategies for urban parks with extended opening hours in Shanghai
    LIU Na-na, GUO Xue-yan, CUI Yi-chong, ZHANG Hong, LU Jun-yao, DA Liang-jun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 155-163.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.017
    Abstract49)   HTML0)    PDF (768KB)(156)      
    Based on increasing demand for extended opening hours of urban parks at night, this study explores the satisfaction and service requirements of parks, via questionnaires, from the perspective of visitors and park managers. Based on an analysis of facility status, use characteristics, and park management and maintenance, the study puts forward countermeasures to meet the diverse demands of visitors, strengthen safety, and improve management policies, leveraging the management experience of gate-free urban parks in China and abroad. This study, furthermore, aims to provide a valuable reference for improving the quality of urban parks with extended opening hours.
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    A public opinion analysis model based on Danmu data monitoring and sentiment classification
    YE Jian, ZHAO Hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 86-100.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.010
    Abstract46)   HTML0)    PDF (2640KB)(225)      
    With the rapid development of online video platforms, Danmu has gradually become an important way for people to express their opinions, and it is particularly welcomed by young people. Unlike conventional texts, Danmu texts are generally short, unstructured, and involve Internet slang as well as conventional stop words to express emotions. In this paper, a public opinion analysis model based on Danmu data is proposed. According to the data generation and storage characteristics of Danmu, a hotspot detection-based loop algorithm is proposed for Danmu data collection. Moreover, the sentiment dictionary to distinguish emotional tendencies is expanded to include network vocabularies commonly appearing in Danmu. Finally, based on the convolutional neural network (CNN), we build a classification model to distinguish positive and negative emotions. Experiments show that the public opinion analysis model of this paper can effectively demonstrate public opinion analysis of Danmu data.
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    Differences in biodiversity of diurnal and nocturnal waterbirds between natural and artificial wetlands: A case study from Caohai Nature Reserve and Yangwanqiao Reservoir, Guizhou Province
    LUO Zu-kui, LI Yang, LIU Wen, LI Xing-yuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 120-130.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.013
    Abstract44)   HTML1)    PDF (663KB)(147)      
    In order to compare diurnal and nocturnal differences in waterbird biodiversity between Caohai Nature Reserve (natural wetland) and Yangwanqiao Reservoir (artificial wetland), we investigated waterbirds primarily using the line transect method during the wintering period from 2010 to 2016. The results from daylight hours indicated that avian abundance, richness, unique species, and the G-F index in Caohai Nature Reserve were all significantly higher than those observed in Yangwanqiao Reservoir, both in spring and winter. The results from nighttime indicated that avian abundance, richness, unique species, and G-F index in Caohai Nature Reserve were all significantly higher than those observed in Yangwanqiao Reservoir in winter. However, there were not significant differences in avian abundance, richness, and unique species observed between the two wetlands in spring. Birds with both different foraging ways and different body sizes varied significantly between the wetlands during daytime and nighttime. The size of mudflats, anthropological disturbances, cement banks, and emerging lake aquatic plants are the main factors that bring about differences in the waterbird community between the two wetlands. The status of habitat exploitation by waterbirds in a plot can be shown if avian distribution is observed both during daytime and nighttime.
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    Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-HU equation hierarchy
    FANG Fang, HU Bei-bei
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 21-31.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.003
    Abstract43)   HTML0)    PDF (289KB)(211)      
    In the present paper, a super-HU hierarchy was constructed based on super-matrix Lie algebra and super-trace identity. In addition, an integrable super-HU equation hierarchy with self-consistent sources was established. Finally, we set up infinitely many conservation laws for an integrable super-HU equation hierarchy by introducing two variables F and G.
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    Dynamic routing algorithm based on local information in a free-scale network
    HAN Ding-ding, LIU Kang, TANG Ming
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 69-76,96.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.008
    Abstract42)   HTML0)    PDF (1002KB)(261)      
    We proposed a packet routing algorithm with two tunable parameters, α and β, which control the routing preference of degree and queue length, respectively, based on local information in a scale-free network. By adjusting the parameters to change network transmission capability, we found an optimal combination of the two parameters.Other dynamic properties, including average packet travel time and traffic load were also studied. Simulation research showed that the proposed algorithm not only reducedpacket loss rates, but also improved transmission capability and alleviated traffic congestion. We also compared the algorithm with other classical routing algorithms, based on real networks, and the proposed algorithm also displayed good results.
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    Variation in germination rates of moss spores using a cryopreservation technique: A case study of spores from six moss species
    SUN Li-wei, GAO Xue-di, XU Dan-er, Wang Shu-qin, YANG Zhuo-jun, WANG Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 138-143,154.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.015
    Abstract42)   HTML0)    PDF (1006KB)(190)      
    To evaluate the applicability of cryopreservation for bryophyte spores, this study explored the effect of dehydration time and low temperature pretreatment; the study was used to identify the optimal conditions for six moss spores collected from different habitats. In addition, varying time periods (1 d, 15 d, 30 d, 90 d, 180 d) of spore cryopreservation were studied under the optimal pretreatment conditions identified. The results showed that:①After dehydration and low temperature pretreatment, the highest germination rates of spores from the six moss species were maintained (87.25%~96.21%). ②Compared to low temperature pretreatment, dehydration seems to be the key point of success for spore cryopreservation. The average spore germination rates ranged from 74.97% to 96.21% when treated with dehydration alone; in comparison, germination rates ranged from 21.73% to 90.94% when pretreated with low temperature alone. ③The average germination rates of spores from five moss species maintained their respective highest level (87.25%~96.21%) after cryopreservation for 1 d and then decreased with the prolongation of storage time; nevertheless, the germination rates still remained at relatively high levels (73.69%~86.60%).④ The average germination rates of spores from Funaria hygrometrica, Pohlia elongate, and Trematodon longicollis after storage for 30 d were 86.49%, 86.60%, and 84.98%, respectively. The germination rates of spores from Bryum blindii and B. caespiticium reached 73.69% and 84.17%, respectively, after storage for 180 d. The study indicates that the procedure for spore cryopreservation could be a simple, stable, and efficient method for storage of bryophyte species in conservation programs.
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    pH induced regulation of the morphology and properties of polybenzidine submicron rods
    WANG Lin, ZHANG Yan-hui, Arzugul MUSLIM, Abida ABDUNAZAR, LAN Hai-die
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 164-173.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.018
    Abstract42)   HTML0)    PDF (2576KB)(254)      
    Polybenzidine was prepared using micelles of the triblock copolymer PnBA28-b-PS75-b-P2VP104 as a template. The effects of different pH values on the morphology and properties of polybenzidine (PBZ) were investigated by regulating the pH value of the micellar solution of the templates. The molecular weight distribution and structure of the triblock copolymer PnBA28-b-PS75-b-P2VP104 were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). The morphology and structure of the composites were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical capacitance of the composites was evaluated by chronopotentiometry. The effects of the pH value on the morphology, structure and properties of PBZ were explored in this study. The PBZ particles were submicron and micron rods with uniform distribution and a smooth surface. PBZ rods obtained at pH=5 had an average diameter that ranged from several tens to 200 nm. The uniformity of particle morphologies was found to decrease with an increase in pH value; A electrochemical performance test showed that the specific capacitance of PBZ reached 339.06 F/g at pH=5.
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    A comparative analysis of the Ocean Health Index and the Pressure-State-Response evaluation methods for Shanghai's ocean ecosystem health
    WU Zhen, CHEN Rui-shan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (4): 174-187.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.04.017
    Abstract42)   HTML0)    PDF (1011KB)(219)      
    The ocean is of great significance to humanity. It not only regulates the global climate, but it also plays a vital role in providing food, livelihood, and entertainment. The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed:improving the capabilityfor marine resource exploration, developing the marine economy, protecting the marine ecological environment, firmly safeguarding the rights and interests of the nation's seas, and building a strong maritime nation. As one of the world's mega coastal cities, Shanghai must understand the changing trends and status of its ocean ecosystem health,and the interaction between cities and oceans. The current challenges for Shanghai's ocean coast are marine pollution, land reclamation, and typhoon storms caused by global changes. Based on evaluation methods for ocean ecosystem health, both in China and abroad, this paper compares two different evaluation methods:the Ocean Health Index (OHI) and the Pressure-State-Response (PSR). The paper evaluates the changing trends and status of Shanghai's ocean ecosystem health. The evaluation results of the two methods show that Shanghai's ocean ecosystem became healthier since 2009; it was, however,foundto be in a state of sub-standard health in 2015. The "Pressure-State-Response" (PSR) model, moreover, was found to be most suitable for Shanghai. This study provides scientific advice for the development of land and sea in Shanghai, as well as research cases for other coastal cities.
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