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    25 January 2011, Volume 2011 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Article
    Seasonal variation of primary productivity in the Daning River backwater area
    ZHANG Jia-lei;;ZHENG Bing-hui;HUANG Min-sheng;LIU Lu-san;WANG Li-ping; WU Guang-ying
    2011, 2011 (1):  1-11. 
    Abstract ( 2769 )   PDF (1815KB) ( 1785 )   Save
    Seasonal variation of primary productivity and its causing factors were investigated during the algae bloom period and dry season in the backwater area of the Daning River, a branch of the Three Gorges, China. The results indicate that most of the investigated physico-chemical parameters, including water temperature, DO concentration (saturation), SPC (specific conductivity), pH, TUR (Turbidity), etc., in the Daning River are significantly different between the algae bloom period and dry season (ANOVA,  p<0.05). The results suggest that primary productivity and chlorophyll-a in algae bloom period are higher than those in the dry season(ANOVA, p <0.05). The vertical distribution of PG (Gross primary productivity), PN (net production) and Chl-a(chlorophyll-a) were not significantly different. The maximum of chlorophyll-a concentrations were observed at 9 m underwater, and the maximun of PN 、 PG were observed from 0 m to 3 m underwater. The results indicate that the Daning River backwater area has a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the gross primary productivity, net production and chlorophyll-a. The maximun of gross primary productivity, net production and chlorophyll-a were observed from 0 m to 0.8 m underwater. The results suggest that the water temperature and turbidity are key regulatory factors for primary production. The changes of pH, DO concentration (saturation) and SPC may be the results of the change of the phy-toplankton.
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    Characters and evaluation of nitrogen pollution in the water and surface sediment from six urban lakes in Beijing
    CHEN Jian-jun;;HUANG Min-sheng;LU Shao-yong;ZHAO Yi-kun;WU Yun;HUANG Guo -zhong
    2011, 2011 (1):  12-20. 
    Abstract ( 3014 )   PDF (1275KB) ( 2225 )   Save
    The pollution characters, degree and correlations of the indexes in water and surface sediments from six lakes in Beijing were investigated to provide data for the eutrophication control of urban lakes. Results showed that nitrogen pollution of these urban lakes was serious, and the water total nitrogen (TN) of three lakes were all worse than that of National Environment Quality Standard for Surface Water Grade V during the investigation period. According to the Taihu Lake Basin Pollution Standard, the organic nitrogen content (ON%) pollution from the surface sediment of the six lakes were very serious: the minimum from which was three times of the pollution standard level. According to the standard of Canada, the ecological toxic of sediments TN from two lakes were both above serious toxicity standards, while that of other three lakes were all near to the serious toxicity standards. The correlation of nitrogen fractions and TOC content between index of water and surface sediment from the six urban lakes were calculated, and the results showed that the correlation between sediment TN and sediment TOC was the highest ( r =0.965, p <0.01), correlations between water TN and sediment TN and TOC was extremely significant ( p <0.01) as 0.960, 0.964, respectively. The investigation suggested that the control and reduction of TOC and TN in surface sediment (0~10 cm) of urban lake are of important significance to the control of nitrogen pollution in the lake water.
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    Research on the meteorological and hydrological factors of cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Dianshan
    WANG Ming-wei;XU Qi-xin;CHE Yue;YANG Kai
    2011, 2011 (1):  21-31. 
    Abstract ( 3051 )   PDF (390KB) ( 1408 )   Save
    The high total nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of Lake Dianshan was the key nutrient supply for cyanobacteria bloom and resulted in the eutrophication. The ranges were 3.47~4.53 mg/L and 0.18~0.24 mg/L during 2007-2009, respectively. The results of MODIS images analysis showed that cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Dianshan increased during 2007-2009, and the frequencies were 3 d, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. The results also showed that the main algae aggregation areas after bloom were the centre, the northeast and the east of the lake. The average water level of Lake Dianshan was higher and the water exchanging period extended from June to September, as a result of backwater effect from Huangpu River and Taipu River. The comparison results between the daily meteorological factors variations from July to September and that on the cyanobacteria bloom dates showed that, in summer, high temperature (24.2~30.5 ℃) and long illumination hours (more than 5.9 h) were likely to accelerate the proliferation rate of cyanobacteria; low air pressure(less than 1 015 hPa), low air velocity (slower than 2.2 m/s) and little precipitation were apt to accelerate the floating up rate of cyanobacteria; heavy precipitation and high air velocity would inhibit cyanobacteria bloom. The meteorological and hydrolgocial factors would play a key role in a prediction and early-warning system of lake cyanobacteria bloom, and also be an important part of building a risk prevention system.
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    Review of sediment ecological dredging in urban black-odors river treatment
    CAO Cheng-jin;CHEN Zhen-lou;WANG Jun;HUANG Min-sheng;QIAN Chang-ping;LIU Lin
    2011, 2011 (1):  32-42. 
    Abstract ( 3254 )   PDF (1748KB) ( 3227 )   Save
    Based on the latest research achievements, the common technology of sediment ecological dredging was integrated by condensing some key factors including technical characteristic, process, principle, parameter, using problems, and application prospect. The new integrating technology is expected to be a common technology of sediment displacement treatment. This study offers reference and consult to China urban river pollution controlling.

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    Progress in the development of black-odour prediction models for urban rivers
    LIU Cheng;HU Zhan-bo;HAO Xiao-ming;BAI Yan-yan
    2011, 2011 (1):  43-54. 
    Abstract ( 2719 )   PDF (839KB) ( 2394 )   Save
    The paper first analyzed the causes and mechanisms of black-odour in urban rivers, then provided a review on the achievements on methods and approaches for black-odour evaluation. A number of black-odour assessment models were collected together and then compared with each other. Four widely used models: the multiple linear regression model, the organic pollution index model, the multi-factor weighted index model and the comprehensive water quality identification index model were selected and analyzed. The trend of evaluation model building on black-odour in urban rivers was prospected in the end.
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    Review of artificial wetland treatment technique for initial rainwater runoff pollutant removal
    QIAN Chang-ping;CHEN Zhen-lou;CAO Cheng-jin;WANG Jun
    2011, 2011 (1):  55-62. 
    Abstract ( 2789 )   PDF (1131KB) ( 2310 )   Save
    This paper analyzed and described the technical characteristics, technical procedures, technical principles, technical parameters, technical problems and technology prospects in the artificial wetland treatment. The development prospect of the technique at home and abroad was also anticipated. This investigation will provide references for the project of controlling the city black-odor river pollution.
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    Review of countermeasures of city combined sewer overflows
    LIU Lin;CHEN Zhen-lou;ZHANG Qiu-zhuo;WANG Jun;CAO Cheng-jin
    2011, 2011 (1):  63-72,8. 
    Abstract ( 2432 )   PDF (974KB) ( 2483 )   Save
    This paper analyzed the characteristics of city combined sewer overflow pollutions, illustrated the common process on their control, summarized the research progress. The problems and shortage of combined sewer overflows countermeasures in China were also analyzed. This study which could be useful and provide technical references for chinese city water pollution control.
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    Development and prospect for the study of persistent toxic substances of sediment
    SONG Li;HUANG Min-sheng
    2011, 2011 (1):  73-86. 
    Abstract ( 3371 )   PDF (290KB) ( 1366 )   Save
    The persistent toxic substances (PTS) are divided into persistent organic pollutants(POPs) and heavy metals. The soure of these PTSs and the ways for their entering the sediment were described. It was pointed out that these PTSs have the characteristics of semi-volatilized, high toxic, Long-term residual and biological accumulation. This article also reviewed the research status of the cycle of PTSs in an ecosystem, and PTS damage to the reproductive and organs of a living creature.
    Technique methods for chemical and biological detecting and analyzing PTSs were introduced. The technique of PTS physicochemical-remediation, bio-remediation and phytoremediation were also described. Finally, the research prospect of the PTS in sediment is anticipated.
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    Inoculated sludge selection and start-up of anaerobic ammonia oxidation reactors for the treatment of municipal wastewater
    CHEN Yu-xia; GENG Liang;HUANG Min-sheng;LIN Jian-bo;HE Yan;ZHU Yong
    2011, 2011 (1):  87-94. 
    Abstract ( 2658 )   PDF (2878KB) ( 1502 )   Save
    Two groups of different mixed sludges, with one group including anaerobic granular sludges, malodorous river sediments and aerobic activate sludge (R1), and the other including anaerobic digested sludge, malodorous river bottom sludge and aerobic activate sludge (R2),were used as inocula in two parallel ASBR systems treating actual municipal wastewater for 180~210 d. At the end of the experiment, the inner cultured sludge were observed by scanning electron microscope for analysis of their surface morphology. It was found that anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) could be successfully achieved in the two systems. The ANAMMOX occurred after operation of 135 days. Additionally, removal efficiencies of NH4+-N(97.35%) and NO-2-N(99%) were observed at the stable stage in the R1 reactor. Comparatively, the R2 reactor took on notable ANAMMOX after 102 days’ operation, the averaged removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite were 93.17% and 99% respecfively during stable operation. Taken together, the mixed sludge of R2 can be deemed as a relatively ideal inoculum for the ANAMMOX reactor due to its quicker start-up. The electron microscopy results showed that the anammox bacteria may exist in ASBR reactor.
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    Dynamic junior monitoring of phytoplankton in the process of malodorous river remediation by staged ecological floating-beds
    WU Xiao-hui;ZHANG Dan;HUANG Min-sheng;ZHANG Yong;HE Yan
    2011, 2011 (1):  95-103. 
    Abstract ( 2843 )   PDF (2152KB) ( 1676 )   Save
    The emergent, floating leaf and submerged plants were integrated into Staged Ecological Floating-beds (SEF) for malodorous river′s purification and remediation. The dynamic characteristics of phytoplankton and the water quality were monitored to study the mechanisms of the ecological staged floating-beds for remediation of malodorous river. The results showed that the percentage of Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta decreased after SEF remediation. It was also found that the dominant phytoplankton species were changed, indicating that the quality of effluent were improved. The phytoplankton density reached the maximum in September and the lowest in June, with their values higher than 1×105ind.·L-1 reflecting the high concentrations of nutrients in water. Emerged plant floating-beds among the SEF have the lowest phytoplankton density, indicating that the Hydrocotyle vulgaris has the strongest growth inhibition on algae. Additionally, three kinds of bio-diversity indexes of phytoplankton showed the trends of water quality were improved notably, but there were significant differences in these indexes, and that means it is not suitable to assess the water quality by a single index. The phytoplankton species had close correlation with CODCr and the phytoplankton density had the same relationship with DO. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highly correlated with CODCr. The Margalef index was also correlated with CODCr and pH, and the Pielou index significantly correlated with TP ( r =0.438, P <0.05). However, all indexes correlated with NH3-N were not remarkable.
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    Removal of nitrogen in a malodorous river by staged floating treatment wetlands
    XU Yu-rong;ZHANG Yong;HUANG Min-sheng;ZHAO Feng;GAO Shang;HE Yan
    2011, 2011 (1):  104-110. 
    Abstract ( 2598 )   PDF (2484KB) ( 1626 )   Save
    Focused on a malodorous river in Shanghai, a set of staged floating treatment wetlands (SFTWs), by simulating ecological niche distribution of hydrophyte in nature water with three kinds of hydrophyte, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Nymphaea tetragona, Myriophyllum verticillatum, was designed. The results showed that the average removal rate of ammonian was 71.9%, with 36.1%, 22.3% and 13.5% of ammonia nitrogen being removed by the unit of emergent plants (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) , floating plants (Nymphaea tetragona) and submerged plants (Myriophyllum verticillatum) respectively. Nitrite nitrogen was accumulated in the staged ecological floating wetlands. The average concentration of nitrite in the floating plants unit and submerged unit rose to 1.4 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L from 1.3 mg/L respectively. At the same time, the nitrate nitrogen concentration in the unit of emergent plants and the unit of submerged plants unit is lower than that in the unit of floating plants, also accumulated in the system. The average removal rate of total inorganic nitrogen, mainly by the unit of emergent plants (up to 24.8%), was 45.0%.
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    Demonstration work on purification of urban polluted rivers by staged floating treatment wetlands
    CHEN Yu-hui;ZHANG Yong;HUANG Min-sheng;HE Yan;CAO Cheng-jin
    2011, 2011 (1):  111-118,. 
    Abstract ( 2575 )   PDF (2162KB) ( 1743 )   Save
    By constructing Staged Floating Treatment Wetlands (SFTW) for purification of Xinjiaopu River in Shanghai, the improvement effect of eutrophic water quality was investigated. The results showed that the best removal efficiencies on CODCr, NH4+-N, TN and TP are 21.26%, 29.07%, 37.95% and 20.74%, respectively. According to Surface Water Environment Criteria of China (GB 3838—2002), all the measured water quality indexes except that of TN reached Grade V, basically meeting the requirements.The evaluation result of phytoplankton doinant species and NQI indicated the water quality was at heavy-eutrophication,but NQI decreased 3.26~12.33. The system has good application prospect.
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    Study on the effect of SFTWs for phosphorus removal from malodorous water
    XU Huan;ZHANG Yong;HUANG Min-sheng;LUO Jin-hong;HE Yan
    2011, 2011 (1):  119-125. 
    Abstract ( 2530 )   PDF (1534KB) ( 1653 )   Save
    The staged floating treatment wetlands (SFTWs) were constructed to treat malodorous water of an industrial river in Shanghai by simulating the ecological distribution of aquatic plants in the natural water, focusing on the effect of the season and temperature, plant species, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and other factors on the phosphorus removal rate. The results showed that the temperature changes did an obvious effect on the phosphorus removal efficiency of floating bed system where a positive correlation was in a certain temperature range. Total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (PO43- -P) removal rates reached 59% and 62% minimum respectively when the lowest temperature was 15.2 ℃. Among different species of water plants, emergent plant such as Hydrocotyle vulgaris unit removed the most phosphorus with a removal rate of 62.3%. The phosphorus removal efficiency increased when pH value rise. The DO also had an effect on phosphorus removal.
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    Pilot scale study on phosphorus removal from malodorous water body by pumice vertical flow constructed wetlands
    LI Zhen;LUO Jin-hong;HUANG Min-sheng;ZHANG Yong;HE Yan
    2011, 2011 (1):  126-134. 
    Abstract ( 2644 )   PDF (2478KB) ( 1794 )   Save
    Aquatic plants ( Pontederia cordata ) and packing material (pumice) were chosen to construct vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) which have functions of both landscaping and purification of malodorous water body. The pilot study on phosphorus removal from malodorous water body by pumice VFCW was conducted successfully. The concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in influent and effluent of VFCW were detected at different times. The results show that removal rate of TP ranged 58.13%~83.25% and the changing trend of TP removal rate is in accordance with that of temperature. The TP removal effect varies with time and space: In case of short experimental runs (less than 2 months), the surface (less than 20 cm thick) of pumice displays stronger removal effect of phosphorus than other depths; in case of more than 2 months, the removal effects of phosphorus have small variations in different depths. Study on the correlation between ferric iron and phosphorus in the depth of 20 cm by SPSS V13.0 shows Pearson correlation coefficient r =-0.692, P =0.018<0.05, which indicates a negative correlation between the concentrations of ferric iron and the phosphorus.
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    Study of a new bio-packing tank for the pretreatment of malodorous river water
    CHENG Qing-lin;ZHANG Yong;HUANG Min-sheng;PAN Zheng; HE Yan;CAO Cheng-jin
    2011, 2011 (1):  135-140. 
    Abstract ( 2352 )   PDF (1863KB) ( 1674 )   Save
    The goal of this experiment is to improve the performance of constructed wetland for the malodorous black river. The average removal rates of the new bio-packing tank on system CODCr ,NH3-N and TP were 36.63%, 29.41% and 29.22%, respectively, and all being higher than that of the filling purification tank. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the new flexible medium was characterized by fibrous, large surface area and easy to membrane-hanging. This new tank can be used for recovering the ecosystem of water body, and as a good supplement to constructed wetland.
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    Grey relational analysis of aquatic plants’ physiological responses to malodorous water treatment
    ZHANG Dan;HE Yan;HUANG Min-sheng;LU Xiao-ming
    2011, 2011 (1):  141-147. 
    Abstract ( 2425 )   PDF (910KB) ( 1566 )   Save
    The grey relational analysis was initiated to investigate the relationships between the physiological properties of aquatic plants and the performances of the bio-eco-technology for the treatment of malodorous rivers in Shanghai. The main objective of this research was to provide scientific explanation for the water purification mechanisms of the bio-eco-technology. The results indicated that the priority response order of the plants physiological properties for COD and NH4+ -N removal was POD>CAT>Chla>SP>Chlb, indicating that the microbial degradation could be mainly responsible for the removal of COD and NH4+ -N. However, the priority associated grade of the plant physiological characteristic for TP removal was Chlb>SP>Chla>CAT>POD, demonstrating that the adsorption of aquatic plants played a dominant role in removing total phosphrous from malodorous black water.
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    Process characteristics of EGSB for municipal sewage treatment
    GENG Liang;CHEN Yu-xia;HUANG Min-sheng;ZHU Yong;HE Yan;LIN Jian-bo
    2011, 2011 (1):  148-155. 
    Abstract ( 2610 )   PDF (2868KB) ( 1433 )   Save
    The start-up and operation performances of EGSB were investigated for municipal sewage treatment, and the key operational parameters were also analyzed. After 45 days, EGSB could be started-up effectively with the removal of CODCr and NH3 -N being 58.8% and 32.9%, respectively. In the mean time, the removal efficiency of ammonia and nitrite were from negative to positive, and the anammox strengthened gradually. It was also found that the reactor operated well at ambient temperature with the average CODCr removal efficiencies of 66.6%. The average removal efficiencies of NH3 -N, NO2- -N and NO3- -N were up to 90% and the anammox appeared markedly in this system. The quality of the effluent in the system could meet grade I of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978—1996). It was suggested that the HRT of EGSB in operation is less than 2 h and the reflux ratio less than 400%.
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    Oil sorption of textile fibers for sudden oil spill pollution in urban rivers
    QI Pei-shi;LIN Na;LIU Yun-zhi
    2011, 2011 (1):  156-162. 
    Abstract ( 2393 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 1838 )   Save
    Cotton, flax fiber and hemp fiber, three of the most common and aboundant textile fibers, were evaluated as sorbent for treating sudden oil spill pollution. Oil-sorption capacity, sorption rate, reusability of sorbents, and the effect of river temperature were investigated. Sorption kinetic equation was established by curve fitting under the different sorption condition. All of the three textile fibers showed high oil sorption performance from the results and were promising as a rapid respond approach for sudden oil spill treatment of urban river.
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    Development of a black-odour prediction model for Nanning Zhupai Creek
    HAO Xiao-ming;HU Zhan-bo;LIU Cheng;WEI Yong-ping; LI Zhi-hua;WEI Qun
    2011, 2011 (1):  163-171. 
    Abstract ( 3166 )   PDF (2329KB) ( 1976 )   Save
    In this paper, several major parameters (such as CODCr, DO, NH3 -N, Fe and Mn etc.) in Nanning Zhupai Creek were used to correlate with the black-odour index. The results showed that CODCr, NH3 -N, DO, Fe, Mn were the major factors to affect the black-odour index. Based on a set of data, a predict model for the black-odour index in Zhupai Creek was developed, i.e.,
    I=0.050 3[CODCr]+0.257 6[NH3 -N]-2.304 9[DO]+1.239 4[Fe]+2.770 0[Mn]+14.407 8.
    The above model provides not only a good evaluation tool for the black-odour level in Zhupai Creek, but also the theoretical basis for building early warning monitoring system in the black-odor in Nanninig urban rivers.
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    An investigation of human settlement environment of typic black-odor rivers in Wenzhou
    HUANG Jing;LIU Yao-long;CHEN Zhen-lou;WANG Jun;YE Ming-wu
    2011, 2011 (1):  172-178. 
    Abstract ( 2754 )   PDF (1843KB) ( 1834 )   Save
    In order to estimate the performance of the corresponding management engineering, especially relate to the human settlement, a sampled questionnaire survey named <The evaluation of human settlement environment of typic black-odor rivers in Wenzhou > was conducted to the residents along Shanxia River and Jiushan River in Wenzhou to obtain the feelings of people lived near the dirty river about the water, landscape as well as the whole environment. Conclusions can be drawn as follows: the investigated residents who take an attitude that the rivers are in urgent need of comprehensive treatment account for 86.2%. Nearly 40% of the residents enjoy the ecological landscape along both sides of the river, while 58.6% of residents dissatisfy with the water environmental quality. The lifeline system around the river is pretty good, and the cultural and sports facilities of both sides are well received. Environmental management ability of government is deemed to be below average. The results have some guidance for engineering implementation.
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    Pilot scale study on the treatment of water in Wenruitang River by fluidized bed reactor with embedded nitrobacteria
    ZHANG Ye-jian;YE Hai-ren;ZHENG Xiang-yong;Yan Li
    2011, 2011 (1):  179-184. 
    Abstract ( 2188 )   PDF (1649KB) ( 1519 )   Save
    The treatment characteristics of a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with embedded nitrobacteria was investigated to rapidly remove ammonia from Wenruitang River. Results showed that 45.50% of the ammonia nitrogen in the Wenruitang River was removed by the fluidized bed reactor with the average influent ammonia nitrogen concentration of 6.15 mg/L. The main product of the nitrification process was nitrate nitrogen. CODMn could also be removed during the treatment process. Harmful ammonia nitrogen in urban rivers could be rapidly be removed by the fluidized bed reactor with embedded nitrobacteria. This could be applied in the treatment of urban river water.
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    Efficiencies of different zeolite and medical stone combinations removaling the nitrogen and phosphorus in urban rainfall runoff
    ZHOU Dong;CHEN Zhen-lou;BI Chun-juan;WANG Jun;LIN Shou-min;QI Ying-ying
    2011, 2011 (1):  185-193. 
    Abstract ( 2299 )   PDF (1258KB) ( 1928 )   Save
    One kind of packed columns, which were filled up with three different volume ratios of zeolite and medical stone (5 ∶5, 7 ∶3, 3 ∶7; V ∶V), were used to investigate the efficiency of zeolite and medical stone to removal the nitrogen and phosphorus in synthetic urban rainfall runoff during a 7 days period. The experiments were token twice, and the results showed that 3 ∶7 ratio of packed column could removal 78.61% and 85.28% nitrogen in the first and second phase experiment respectively, and the phosphorus removal rates reached 96.73% and 94.59%; the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus of 5 ∶5 ratio packed column were 83.18% and 97.02% in the first phase, and 80.24% and 86.16% in the second phase; while in 7 ∶3 ratio packed column, about 92.39% and 80.01% nitrogen and 51.79% and 57.28% phosphorus was removed respectively. It was concluded that in considering the whole removal efficiency and regeneration capability of zeolite and medical stone, the combination of 3 ∶7 ratio was the best choice.
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    Assessment on the effect of surface dust on mercury and arsenic in rainfall-runoff in the Shanghai urban district
    ZHANG Jing-jing;BI Chun-juan;CHEN Zhen-lou;LI Meng
    2011, 2011 (1):  194-202. 
    Abstract ( 2337 )   PDF (1811KB) ( 1809 )   Save
    This study was about undertaken to assess the impact of Hg and As on the surface environment system in Shanghai urban district. Particle size effect of Hg and As in surface dust was researched, and the result showed that the high values centralized in the range of <125 μm and particle size effect played a role in pollutant concentrations. The contents of contaminants decreased with the increasing of flow time except for Hg of highway. The consequence of environmental behavior of Hg and As in multi-media environment of surface dust and rainfall-runoff system proved that surface dust made a great contribution on the load in rain-fall runoff. The EMCs of Hg in roofing and highway were similar, but EMCs of As were opposite to them. The result indicated that the magnitude of the first flush phenomenon which was affected by characterization of rainfall and different land use types was found to be greater which was closely linked with precipitation.
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