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    Trade: Hard or soft infrastructure? China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative and what it means for Kenya
    Asenath MAOBE
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 179-183.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092321
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    Images of multilinear polynomials on algebra of upper triangular 3 × 3 matrices
    Aihui SUN, Jie BAI, Kaihua BAO
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (1): 8-15.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.201911047
    Abstract132)   HTML201)    PDF (635KB)(42)      

    This study builds on the method developed by Wang for images of multilinear polynomials on algebra of upper triangular $ 2\times2$ matrices. The main goal of the paper is to give a description of the images of multilinear polynomials on algebra of upper triangular $ 3\times 3$ matrices, thereby partly solving the Fagundes and Mello conjecture, a variation of the famous Lvov-Kaplansky conjecture.

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    The impact of coupling patterns on transport in multilayer networks
    Yaqin HU, Ming TANG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (3): 105-113.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2021.03.011
    Abstract132)   HTML29)    PDF (924KB)(20)      

    Multilayer networks can better reflect the structure and characteristics of many systems in the real world. In recent years, multilayer networks have become a focus area for many researchers. Based on the degree-degree correlation of interlayer nodes, we propose an intermediate degree coupling pattern to enhance the traffic capacity of multilayer networks at a low relative cost. In addition, the effectiveness of the intermediate degree coupling pattern is verified using two classic routing strategies, namely shortest path and efficient routing. Compared with the three coupling methods-assortative coupling, disassortative coupling, and random coupling-the intermediate coupling pattern makes the traffic load distribution more uniform on multilayer networks; hence, the traffic capacity of multilayer networks is greatly improved, and the average transport time of packets is effectively reduced. With lower coupling probability, the intermediate coupling pattern can significantly enhance the traffic capacity of a multilayer network when an efficient routing strategy is used. Meanwhile, simulation results show that more uniform network topology results in higher traffic capacity.

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    Survey of early time series classification methods
    Mengchen YANG, Xudong CHEN, Peng CAI, Lyu NI
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (5): 115-133.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2021.05.011
    Abstract132)   HTML6)    PDF (1503KB)(80)      

    With the increasing popularity of sensors, time-series data have attracted significant attention. Early time series classification (ETSC) aims to classify time-series data with the highest level of accuracy and smallest possible size. ETSC, in particular, plays a critical role in fintech. First, this paper summarizes the common classifiers for time-series data and reviews the current research progress on minimum prediction length-based, shapelet-based, and model-based ETSC frameworks. There are pivotal technologies, advantages, and disadvantages of the representative ETSC methods in separate frameworks. Next, we review public time-series datasets in fintech and commonly used performance evaluation criteria. Lastly, we explore future research directions pertinent to ETSC.

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    Asymptotic properties of a class of delay differential equations with a sub-linear neutral term
    Zhongyue HAN, Yuanhong YU
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (1): 1-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.201911020
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    This paper studies the oscillation and asymptotic properties of delay differential equations with damping and sub-linear neutral terms using the generalized Riccati transformation technique and the mean value theorem. After analyzing the function of the cross-link between the condition $\int^\infty_{t_0}(\frac{1}{R(t)})^{\frac{1}{\gamma}}{\rm{d}}t=\infty$ and the relationship of parameters $\gamma$ and $\beta$ in the differential equations oscillation, the sufficient conditions for the existence of vibration solutions are provided to extend the existing results in the cited literature. Lastly, some applications are given to illustrate the significance of these results.

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    Research progress in Chinese named entity recognition in the financial field
    Qiurong XU, Peng ZHU, Yifeng LUO, Qiwen DONG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (5): 1-13.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2021.05.001
    Abstract126)   HTML13)    PDF (821KB)(69)      

    As one of the basic components of natural language processing, named entity recognition (NER) has been an active area of research both domestically in China and abroad. With the rapid development of financial applications, Chinese NER has improved over time and been applied successfully throughout the financial industry. This paper provides a summary of the current state of research and future development trends for Chinese NER methods in the financial field. Firstly, the paper introduces concepts related to NER and the characteristics of Chinese NER in the financial field. Then, based on the development process, the paper provides an overview of detailed characteristics and typical models for dictionary and rule-based methods, statistical machine learning-based methods, and deep learning-based methods. Next, the paper summarizes public data collection tools, evaluation methods, and applications of Chinese NER in the financial industry. Finally, the paper explores current challenges and future development trends.

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    Historical overview of hypoxia in the Bay of Bengal
    Md Jaker HOSSAIN, Aftab Uddin SHEIKH, Jing ZHANG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 109-113.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092218
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    The distribution of peak wind speeds induced by typhoons along the coasts of the Changjiang Estuary and Hangzhou Bay
    Lu LI, Xiaotao DU
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (2): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2021.02.001
    Abstract116)   HTML663)    PDF (1647KB)(43)      

    In this study, four typical typhoons that significantly affected Shanghai were selected based on their respective intensity and the water level along the Shanghai Coast. The RMW (Radius of Maximum Winds) formula, moreover, was determined using in-situ data from recent typhoons. The typhoon model was built and validated using in-situ wind speeds from the four typhoons selected. The peak wind speed and the forward peak wind speed along the Shanghai Coast were calculated, case by case, during all typhoons over the period from 1949 to 2014 as well as the four typical typhoons selected. Finally, the range and distribution of the peak (forward peak) wind speed were quantitatively studied.

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    The 21st century Maritime Silk Road and the role of Myanmar
    Khin Kyi TUN, Zaisheng XIANG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 1-5.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092101
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    Trade between Poland and China within the Belt and Road Initiative and 17 + 1 Framework: Opportunity and challenge
    Natalia BORUCZKOWSKA, Yuna DI
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 188-192.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092324
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    Overseas mergers and acquisitions: Political affiliation and equitable nature based on Belt and Road Initiative
    Nazia FEROZE, Tongshun CHENG, Muhammad Sabil FAROOQ, Tongkai YUAN
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 15-23.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092104
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    Research on the integration and application of industrial point source emission permit management technology in Taihu Basin
    Xiaochun GUO, Zhenyang HAN, Shaoyong LU, Binghui ZHENG, Zebin TIAN
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (4): 39-45.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2021.04.005
    Abstract108)   HTML10)    PDF (607KB)(9)      

    In this paper, we provide an overview of the development of emission permit systems domestically and globally, and analyze the problems and technology requirements for an emission permit management system at the initial stage of the National Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (referred to hereinafter as the “Water Program”) in the Taihu Basin. Based on a summary of technical achievements from the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans for the Taihu Basin Water Program, a comprehensive set of industrial point source emission permit management technology methods was developed for unit division, control unit pollution load verification, control unit water environmental capacity calculation, assessment of water pollution control and management for key industries, allocation of emission permits, and dynamic monitoring. Furthermore, the effects of implementing a complete set of technologies in Taihu Lake Basin were explored and will serve as a reference for the implementation of a pollution permit management system.

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    Betrothal gifts: A comparative study of Chinese and Yoruba marriage traditions
    Ajibola OGUNBIYI, Yangqian KE, Wenzhi LI, Adenike ADEGELU, Baikai ZHANG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 44-47.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092112
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    China’s Maritime Silk Road and India’s strategic perspective
    Vithiyapathy PURUSHOTHAMAN
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 71-73.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092119
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    Plane circular restricted three-body problem using modified Newtonian dynamics
    Yanfang BI, Tao WANG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (1): 53-59.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.201922016
    Abstract103)   HTML45)    PDF (593KB)(143)      

    Modified Newtonian dynamics is a major competitor of dark matter theory and contains not only a gravitational constant but also an acceleration constant. Based on a circular orbit solution for a two-body problem, this paper is devoted to studying a plane circular restricted three-body problem using modified Newtonian dynamics. We work out the Lagrangian points and the Hill curves akin to those observed in Newtonian dynamics. In contrast, however, the location and number of Lagrangian points, as well as the profile of the Hill region, are dependent on both the acceleration constant and the mass ratio of the main celestial bodies. These findings reveal a new avenue for testing modified Newtonian dynamics.

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    The Sino-India Maritime Silk Road in the Tang Dynasty and its impact on India
    Adeel SHEHZAD
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 40-43.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092111
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    What can the Maritime Silk Road learn from the rise and fall of the Songhai Empire?
    Ibrahim KONE
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2020, 2020 (S1): 24-26, 43.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.202092105
    Online available: 22 January 2021

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    Response of soil greenhouse gas emissions to temperature and moisture across different land-use types
    Wenxiu SANG, Hualei YANG, Jianwu TANG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (4): 109-120.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2021.04.013
    Abstract100)   HTML15)    PDF (1000KB)(40)      

    In this paper, soil samples were collected from the red soil region of southern China (namely, the Sunjiaba small watershed in Yingtan, Jiangxi) across four different land-use types. Laboratory incubation experiments were subsequently carried out from June 2019 to October 2019. We used a closed chamber to measure soil greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) simultaneously with the help of an advanced greenhouse gas analyzer (Picarro-G2508). The aim was to explore the response of soil greenhouse gas emissions across different land-use types to changes in temperature and soil moisture levels under the premise of global climate change. The results showed that the global warming potential (GWP) of the four land-use types increases with paddy, orangery, forest, and upland, respectively. This suggests that greenhouse gas emissions from paddy soils have the greatest relative impact on global warming. In a temperature-controlled experiment, soil CO2 emissions were shown to have a significant positive correlation with soil temperature. The Q10 values of soil respiration coefficients for the four land-use types were: 2.61 (forest), 2.51 (upland), 3.12 (orangery), and 3.17 (paddy). Thus, paddy soil respiration has the highest temperature sensitivity, indicating that paddy soil has a higher CO2 emission potential. Correlations were not significant between CH4 and N2O emissions to soil temperature. In the moisture-controlled experiment, the results indicated that soil CO2 emissions increased at the beginning and then decreased with increasing soil moisture, with the maximum emission rate at 20% GWC (gravity water content). CH4 emissions from paddy soils increased with soil moisture (R2 = 0.8875); CH4 fluxes from the other three land-use types, however, were not significantly related to soil moisture. The soil N2O emissions increased at the beginning and then decreased across the soil moisture range measured; all land-use types had the highest N2O fluxes at 25% GWC.

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    The impacts of climate and land use changes on water yield in the Beisan River Basin
    Wenjing LI, Sheng WANG, Qing LI, Taoli WU, Xinyue ZHAO
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (4): 99-108.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2021.04.012
    Abstract99)   HTML12)    PDF (1255KB)(55)      

    The Beisan River Basin is an important water source for the Jing-Jin-Ji region. It is important to analyze the temporal and spatial changes in basin water yield and the corresponding driving factors to maintain the security and stability of the ecosystem. Based on meteorology, land use, and soil data, the water production module of the InVEST model was used to analyze the temporal and spatial change characteristics of water yield in the Beisan River Basin from 2000 to 2017. The contribution of climate and land use change to the change in water yield was explored through scenario simulation. The results showed that from 2000 to 2017, the average annual water yield of the Beisan River Basin was 17.8 × 108 m3; the annual change showed an increasing trend at a rate of 1.03 × 108 m3/a. The spatial distribution pattern of water yield was high in the south and low in the north. The average depth of water production in the south and north was 70.85 mm and 8.83 mm, respectively. The high value area of water yield was transferred from the southeast Juhe River and Huanxiang River Basin to the southwest Wenhe River and Yongdingbei River Basin. The water supply per unit area, ranked from high to low, across different land use types showed the following order: construction land > cultivated land > water area > unused land > forest land > grassland. From 2000 to 2015, the water yield of cultivated land was the highest, accounting for 51.3% of the total water yield of the basin, while that of construction land increased the most, reaching 144.3%. Scenario simulation results showed that climate and land use change contributed 70.7% and 29.3%, respectively, to the water yield increase, and the surge in precipitation played a leading role.

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    Review of deep learning in cognitive radio
    Bo LIU, Xiaodong BAI, Gengxin ZHANG, Jun SHEN, Jidong XIE, Laiding ZHAO, Tao HONG
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Science)    2021, 2021 (1): 36-52.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.201922017
    Abstract99)   HTML41)    PDF (1163KB)(24)      

    The development of wireless communication has made spectrum resources increasingly scarce. Existing spectrum resources, however, are not currently used in an efficient way. This contradiction can usually be attributed to the problem created by static spectrum allocation strategies. Cognitive radio (CR) is widely regarded as a feasible solution to solve the problem of static spectrum allocation. In recent years, deep learning, an emerging field of machine learning, has contributed to a number of notable research and application achievements. It has become one of the driving technologies behind artificial intelligence. In this paper, we investigated the application of deep learning to CR; this includes the development of cognitive radio and deep learning as well as the usage of deep learning models in key technologies for CR (such as spectrum prediction, spectrum environment sensing, signal analysis, etc.). Lastly, we summarize and discuss conclusions from this review.

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