Sulfate ionic liquids, a new type of ionic liquid, are formed by the combination of sulfate anions and organic cations. Sulfate ionic liquids are important because of their unique characteristics, such as a lack of halogen ions, extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability, a high viscosity index, low isothermal compressibility, selective solubility, and good biocompatibility. In this paper, the recent progress in sulfate ionic liquids is reviewed, with focus on one-step and two-step synthetic methods. The physicochemical parameters, such as the density, viscosity, refractive index, surface tension, isothermal compression coefficient, and sound conduction, are summarized, and the effects of the physicochemical properties of sulfate ionic liquids, such as the length of the alkyl chains with anionic and cationic groups, are discussed. The sulfate ionic liquids discussed in this review could be used in various fields as new environmentally friendly solvents, extractants, catalysts, lubricating materials, gas absorption materials, and to separate or dope composite materials.