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    25 July 2013, Volume 2013 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Article
    Foreword
    DING Ping-xing
    2013, 2013 (4):  0-Ⅴ. 
    Abstract ( 1315 )   PDF (433KB) ( 1730 )   Save
    In Document No.19 (2009) issued by the State Council, Shanghai was asked to be built into an international financial center as well as an international shipping center; the general goals of the latter center included: By 2020, Shanghai will have established an international shipping center with high concentration of maritime resources, sound shipping services, excellent shipping market environment, efficient modern logistics services, and good capacity to allocate global shipping resources. It will become an international shipping hub with Shanghai as the center, Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces as the wings, the Yangtze River Basin as the hinterland, and with reasonable functional allocations and close collaborations with the other ports in China. A modern port will be formed with a large-scale, intensive, efficient and optimized collecting and distributing system. In combination with the international aviation hub in Shanghai, an integrated multiple transportation mode will be established. A modern shipping service system will come true with excellent services and full functions, in order to create a convenient, efficient, safe and lawful port environment as well as a modern international shipping service environment, to enhance the ability of integrating international shipping resources and to improve the comprehensive competitiveness and service ability.
    In the last decade, both the cargo throughput and the container throughput in the Shanghai Port have rocketed up to the first place in the world, thanks to the construction and availability of the Yangtze Estuary’s 12.5 m Deepwater Channel and the Yangshan Deepwater Port. 
    Now, however, the Shanghai Port is facing new severe difficulties, as a consequence of the rapid development of the social economy in China, in realization of the goal to build up an international shipping center by 2020 as required by the State Council. At present, the throughput capacity of the Port has been fully used,and the deep water coastline along the Yangtze River Estuary has been used up; while other big ports in the world, such as Singapore harbor, Busan port and so on, are developing quickly. Without any deeper water berths to dock 18,000 boxes of ultra large container ships, more than 300,000 tons of super large ore carriers and supertankers, it is very difficult for the Shanghai Port to adapt to the world trend of increasing ship size in the future, and thus might lose its competitiveness as well as its status as the largest international hub port in the world. In addition, with the rapid development of the economy in the Yangtze River Delta and the Yangtze River Basin,the total amount of the transportation in these areas is increasing and will continue to increase year by year, causing the increase of the freight volumes which might soon exceed the limit that the Shanghai Port can handle.
    So it is urgent for Shanghai to exploit new port area. A number of 200,000 to 300,000 tons, up to 500,000 tons of super large deep water berths should be built, in order to improve the sea-river joint transportation conditions, to enhance the function of Shanghai international shipping center, and for the center to play a better role in the social and economic development in the Yangtze River Delta and the Yangtze River Basin.
    In early 2011, Mr. Mo Gui, former vice president of the Shanghai Tongsheng Group and the former commandant of the Yangshan Port, together with Mr. Rong-shun Shao, the emeritus chief engineer consultant of the Yangshan Port, came to our Institute and suggested us to carry out the research on new port area planning. The State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research (SKLEC), East China Normal University, paid much attention to this suggestion, and organized a special group to fully support the study on the urgent need from the State and Shanghai. The Laboratory provided financial support for this special project, and further strengthened the cooperation with the CCCC Third Harbor Consultants, so that the advantages of both SKLEC and the CCCC Third Harbor Consultants can be fully taken. The first version of the research report on the planning scheme of building an excavated-in harbor basin in the Hengsha Shoal and constructing an artificial island of Yangtze Estuary was drafted up in May 2012. The second draft was completed in August 2012,  and was forwarded to prestigious academicians and experts from the domestic transportation, ports, and coastal engineering sectors for advices. In September 2012, the experts from the Yangtze Estuary Waterway Administration of the Ministry of transportation, the East China Sea Branch of the State Oceanic Administration, Shanghai water authority and CCCC Third Harbor Consultants were invited to give their suggestions on the second draft. The academicians and experts in this area confirmed our research work, and highly supported the planning scheme of building an excavated-in harbor basin in the Hengsha shoal of the Yangtze Estuary; and they also put forward many valuable comments and suggestions.
    We improved the research report according to the expert advices and suggestions, including further explaining the reasons why to choose Hengsha shoal as a new harbor site, calculating the siltation of excavated-in harbor basin and channel by use of different siltation formulas, estimating siltation for the harbor and waterway during typhoon weather, evaluating the earthwork for the excavated-in harbor basin and roughly analyzing the possible impacts of the planned construction on the ecological environment. The artificial island plan was removed from the study report in order to focus on the excavated-in harbor basin planning. In addition, the research team visited Tangshan Jingtang Port and learned the experiences and lessons in the construction process of excavated-in harbor basin. The final research report was completed in October, 2012. The prestigious experts in this area were invited to attend the review meeting for the report held in November 10, 2012, Shanghai. The experts agreed that it is quite necessary and urgent to expedite the study of a large-scale multipurpose new port plan which can meet the requirements of international container hub port and of international logistics center with the sea-river joint transportation, according to the development requirement of the Shanghai Port and international shipping center. It is entirely possible to build an excavated-in deep water port in the Hengsha shoal without major technical constraints from the construction experiences of similar ports home and abroad. The present excavated-in harbor basin plan may be taken as the preferred scheme. The study results in this phase are scientifically and practically sound, which can be used as the basis for the relevant planning sectors to make new port decisions.
    In order to demonstrate our research results, the main content in the final research report is published as a special issue in the Journal of East China Normal University (Natural Science). We wish to get active responses and comments or suggestions from research fellows, and expect more attention from relevant administrative sectors so as to make greater contribution for the early realization of the Shanghai international shipping center.
    Much thanks to Mr. Mo Gui, the former vice president of the Shanghai Tongsheng Group and the former commandant of the Yangshan Port, and the leaders of CCCC Third Harbor Consultants, who provided valuable advices and supports for the research. We are grateful to the SKLEC in East China Normal University, which provided financial supports to the research. A group of retired professors and senior chief engineers, as well as young scientists are greatly appreciated for their hard work and selfless contributions.
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    Planning ideas and key technology for building excavated-in harbor basin in the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary
    DING Ping-xing, LI Shu-guo
    2013, 2013 (4):  1-9. 
    Abstract ( 1989 )   PDF (3229KB) ( 2511 )   Save
    In order to carry out the suggestion in the document ([2009]19) of the State Council that Shanghai should become an International Shipping Centre by 2020, and to adapt the development demand of larger scale ship and deeper water berth in the world shipping industry, it is urgently necessary to plan a new deeper water harbor in Shnaghai. By a deep-going study, we put forward that the Hengsha Shoal is the best place to construct a new harbor. It can not only avoid the influence of the river mouth bar and the turbidity maximum in the Yangtze Estuary, but also produce a lot of deeper dock shoreline larger than 20 m, to meet the sustained development demand of the Shanghai Harbor in the next 20-30 years, if the excavated-in harbor basin is built in the Hengsha Shoal. The unfavorable effect on the North Passage Deepwater Navigation Channel may be averted by optimizing design. The dredged sediment in the North Passage Deepwater Navigation Channel may be utilized for the siltation and reclamation of the Hengsha Shoal, and the excavation of harbor basin can supply nearby high quality soil source for the large reclamation, thereby saving the cost of reclamation of excavated-in harbor basin.
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    Preliminary analysis for the necessity of building a new harbor in Shanghai
    SHAO Rong-shun, SHI Xiong-biao, YU Ling
    2013, 2013 (4):  10-16. 
    Abstract ( 1880 )   PDF (1689KB) ( 2065 )   Save
    Under the circumstance of increasing serious challenges for the Shanghai Harbor, such as saturated handling capacity and depletion of coastlines with deep bathymetry, devoid of any deep shipping channels and docks of more than 20 m depth, etc, the transportation between the Changjiang River and outer ocean needs to be enhanced. The development of the Shanghai City and adjacent region is significantly restrained by land resource limitation and siltation in the current shipping channel. In order to reach the goal, set by State Council, to develop the International Shipping Centre by 2020, a new harbor is urgently needed to meet the increasing requirement of the economics in the Shanghai City and Changjiang River Basin, and to adapt the demand of large\|scale cargo ship. The sea-river exchange of transportation needs be optimized to enhance the leading effect of Shanghai Harbor.
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    Study of the excavated-in harbor plan in the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary
    SHAO Rong-shun, CHENG Ze-kun, DING Ping-xing,GE Jian-zhong, YU Zhi-ying, YU Ling
    2013, 2013 (4):  17-24. 
    Abstract ( 1966 )   PDF (2563KB) ( 2249 )   Save
    The Hengsha Shoal is located between the shallow Changjiang River  mouth and the outer deep region, indicating it is of great potential as a transportation hub connecting the river and ocean. The broad shallow region in the Hengsha Shoal could be used by the  future excavated-in harbor, to provide space for land region, water region, coasts and docks. The planned excavated-in harbor with coastal defense surrounded around can avoid the bad weathers of the outer ocean, providing safer conditions for shipping and docking. It also has less siltation. And the new-planed harbor does not have significant influence on the adjacent regions, and it is favorable for the  maintenance of the shipping channel. The analysis indicates the excavated-in harbor plan is scientifically reasonable for future practical design and construction.
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    Analysis of hydrodynamics around the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent region
    LI Shen-duo, ZHU Qiao-yun, YU Zhi-ying
    2013, 2013 (4):  25-41. 
    Abstract ( 1754 )   PDF (6361KB) ( 2726 )   Save
    The dominant controlling dynamics for the Changjiang Estuary is the interaction between the strongly periodic tide oscillation and the weakly periodic Changjiang River runoff. The astronomical tide in this region is the combination of the semidiurnal and diurnal tides, which produces the shallow tide wave due to the nonlinear interaction between these tide components. Therefore the tidal asymmetry in one period is subsequently induced. The tide wave mainly flow along the coasts with the northward direction, and turn to the northwestern direction into the North Passage and North Channel. The studied region, Hengsha Shoal, is characterized as the shallow shoals and deep channels, where is the buffering zone for river mouth and open ocean. This complex bathymetry produces the motions of the tide wave and runoff. The current in the channel and north region of Hengsha Shoal has the alternating pattern. And the significant rotating current dominates the south area, which plays an important role on the stability of the local bathymetry and the strong cross-channel current. Since the Changjiang River’s runoff flow eastward, and float on the surface in this region, producing significant two-layer system in the vertical direction.
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    Analysis of the suspended sediment concentration and sedimentation around the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent region
    XU Hai-gen, YU Zhi-ying, NIU Jian-ding, LI Sheng-duo, ZHENG Jian-zhao
    2013, 2013 (4):  42-54. 
    Abstract ( 1926 )   PDF (9676KB) ( 1964 )   Save
    Under the joint influences of the Changjiang River and ocean, the significant sandbar system has been produced in the river mouth, and the submarine delta in the outer deep region. Hengsha Shoal is one of the most important components in this sandbar system. The suspended sediment concentration is not only influenced by the upstream sediment input, but also affected by the storm surge and strong wind. The SSC during spring tide is mainly bigger than that during neap tide. And the SSC of wintertime is higher than summer. The averaged SSC at the 5 m isobath is about 0.459 kg/m3. The SSC shows a significant decreasing trend at the seaward direction. Under the decreasing input from the Changjiang River recently, some part of the seabed shows a erosion pattern. The bed of Hengsha Shoal is mainly composited of silt, and the submarine delta is consisted of silt and clay. The submarine delta could be excavated for harbor and channel, which is favorable for the construction of planed harbor.
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    Morphological stability analysis of the planned excavated-in harbor and its channel in the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary
    YU Zhi-ying, ZHANG Zhi-lin, JIN Liu, XU Hai-gen, LI Sheng-duo
    2013, 2013 (4):  55-71. 
    Abstract ( 1923 )   PDF (15504KB) ( 1984 )   Save
    The proposed excavated-in harbor and shipping channel are located in the adjacent region of Hengsha Shoal in the outer Changjiang River mouth. Accumulation of huge amount of sediment from the upstream Changjiang River occurs in the river mouth, resulted in the large delta area on both land and submarine. Hengsha Shoal is recognized as one of the  three largest shallow shoals, with Chongming East Shoal and Jiuduansha Shoal in the sandbar region of Changjiang River mouth. It shows stable location and bathymetry pattern in the long-term history, which indicates it's an excellent location for a new harbor. During its long history of the submarine delta, the bathymetry is mainly flat and under the deposition effect of delta. With the recent deceasing of the sediment load from the Changjiang River, there is small evolution of the bathymetry. This is favorable for construction of the shipping channel into excavated-in harbor. This paper mainly focuses on the morphological stability of the bathymetry and its evolution trend, to provide some basic support for the new deep harbor.
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    Analysis of disastrous weather in the Hengsha Shoal and adjacent waters of the Yangtze Estuary
    DING Ping-xing, GE Jian-zhong
    2013, 2013 (4):  72-78. 
    Abstract ( 2005 )   PDF (3886KB) ( 2071 )   Save
    Main disastrous weather which affects harbor, navigation channel and shipping are those ones with tropical cyclones, cold fronts and dense fogs. In this paper, the features of main disastrous weather influencing Yangtze Estuary and adjacent waters were quantitatively brought forward by summarizing the correlative literature and research reports. On the statistically average, there are 2.3 tropical cyclones every year, August and September were high-occurrence months;3.15 cold fronts, occurred mainly in late autumn, winter and early spring;50-60 day dense fogs, happened mostly from March to July. In addition, the wave distribution of the Hengsha Shoal and adjacent waters induced by the tropical cyclone and cold front were respectively calculated by use of SWAN model.
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    Hydrodynamic influence of proposed excavated-in harbor in the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary Ⅰ: Numerical Model and Validations
    GE Jian-zhong, GUO Wen-yun, DING Ping-xing
    2013, 2013 (4):  79-90. 
    Abstract ( 2028 )   PDF (12120KB) ( 2033 )   Save
    Based on an unstructured-grid FVCOM model, a high-resolution hydrodynamic model of the Changjiang Estuary has been established. Through the extensive validation against the various observation data, including the current and salinity, this model could correctly reveal the hydrodynamic structures and their variations. It has provided a basic tool for assessing the impacts of the proposed excavated-in harbor of the Hengsha Shoal on the current field on local and adjacent regions.
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    Hydrodynamic influence of proposed excavated-in harbor in the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary Ⅱ: Influence on the current field
    GE Jian-zhong, GUO Wen-yun, DING Ping-xing, YU Zhi-ying, JIN Liu,SHAO Rong-shun, LI Shen-duo, XU Hai-gen
    2013, 2013 (4):  91-105. 
    Abstract ( 1702 )   PDF (14383KB) ( 2062 )   Save
    The planed excavated-in harbor in the Hengsha Shoal, located in the river mouth of Changjiang Estuary, has large spatial coverage, which certainly would have significant influence on the hydrodynamics around the local and adjacent regions. This paper focuses on the hydrodynamic influences of the new harbor based on a validated high-resolution unstructured-grid FVCOM model. The modeling results of current field and characteristics at some typical locations show that neither the South nor the North Plans would create significant influence on the hydrodynamics in the North Channel and North Passage, while the South Plan shows more obvious impact on the outer shipping channel of the Deep Waterway Project. Both plans indicate the currents in the North Channel show increasing dominant of alternating current, while the South Plan would produce more significant cross-channel current at the outer region of excavated-in harbor.
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    Estimation of the sediment siltation in the planned excavated-in harbor in the Hengsha Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary Estuary
    2013, 2013 (4):  106-119. 
    Abstract ( 1958 )   PDF (3005KB) ( 2260 )   Save
    Several different methods, including algorithm of siltation estimation in state regulation of port and waterway, bottom shear stress model and tide prism estimation, were used to make prediction for sedimentation siltation in the proposed excavated-in harbor, which would be located in the Hengsha Shoal to improve the shipping capacity in the Changjiang Estuary. The results from these methods turns out to be consistent. The overall load and strength of sediment siltation for condition of basin gate at -7 m depth and 0.3 kg/m3 sediment concentration is 2.0×107~2.2×107 m3 and 0.3~0.4 m/a in the basin and 0.6×107~1.2×107 m3 and 0.3~0.4 m/a in outer shipping channel. And the maximum siltation mainly centralizes near the basin gate with a distance of 4~6 km. And the prediction indicates the siltation will be significantly decreased if the basin gate moves deeper with lower suspended sediment concentration.
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    Investigation and analysis on the biodiversity and ecological environment in the Hengsha East Shoal of the Yangtze Estuary
    TIAN Bo, ZHOU Yun-xuan, YUAN Lin, ZHAO Yun-long,CHEN Ya-qu, YUAN Xiao, CAO Yong
    2013, 2013 (4):  120-127. 
    Abstract ( 2050 )   PDF (2747KB) ( 2695 )   Save
    As a result of the complex interaction between the estuary enclosure human engineering, the Yangtze River upstream runoff, and the wave and tidal current from the East China Sea, the wetland biodiversity and ecological environment of Yangtze Delta Hengsha East shoal have been changing quickly and sharply. We use remote sensing observation data, field measurement, data analysis in laboratory and historical data collection to conduct a systematic investigation and analysis about the landform, benthic organisms, fish plants and water environment in the Hengsha East Shoal. The results show that the diversity of the region is abundant and water quality and ecological environment is good also. The impact with estuarine engineering implementation and construction is on the need for further monitoring and scientific evaluation.
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