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    25 November 2011, Volume 2011 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Article
    Methods of extracting distribution information of plants at urban darken areas and repairing their brightness
    ZHOU Jian-hua, ZHOU Yi-fan, GUO Xiao-hua, REN Zhen
    2011, 2011 (6):  1-9. 
    Abstract ( 2323 )   PDF (5432KB) ( 2842 )   Save
    In the urban built-up areas with densely high-rising buildings, about 20% of landscape vegetation is growing at darken areas shaded by buildings or other higher plants. In order to drive a model of measuring captured carbon by remote sensing, one of the puzzles to be solved firstly is to separate and extract those plants at darken areas. So a new conception of NDUI (Normalized Difference Umbra Index) has been put forward here. With NDUI, the total area of landscape vegetation is extracted from an infrared remote sensing image by means of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), and then the plants at darken areas are separated from the total area through another segmentation threshold referring to NDUI. These separated plants at darken area can be enhanced with an algorithm of repairing brightness. It is demonstrated by experiments that the algorithm proposed here can work robustly to meet the requirement.
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    Spatial and temporal variations and mechanism of the tidal level and range in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary
    SONG Yong-gang, ZHU Jian-rong, WU Hui
    2011, 2011 (6):  10-19. 
    Abstract ( 2909 )   PDF (2147KB) ( 2725 )   Save
    With the combined effects of the river discharge, tide and wind stress, the spatial/temporal variations as well as the dynamical mechanism of the tidal level and tidal range in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary were numerically simulated and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. The monthly mean tidal level in the North Branch is increased gradually from January to July and decreased gradually from October to December. It mainly depends on the residual water level, which is determined by the amount of the river discharge. The tidal range experiences a seasonal variation, with two maximum and two minimum values in a year. These two maximum values appear in March (the second lunar month) and September (the eighth lunar month), and the two minimum ones appear in June (the fifth lunar month) and December (the eleventh lunar month), respectively. The highest and lowest tidal levels at the Qinglonggang station are mainly determined by the intensity of tidal forcing, and associate with the seasonal variations of the tide and river discharge. The averaged, highest and lowest tidal levels represent a landward increment feature along the North Branch. The tidal range is increased gradually from the mouth to the middle reaches of the North Branch, and decreased from its middle reaches to its upper reaches. The northerly wind in winter tends to produce an increment of the tidal level at the Qinglonggang, and the southerly wind in summer tends to produce a slight decrement of the tidal level and range there. The wind stress has almost no effect on the tidal range in the North Branch. The river discharge increases the tidal level, restrains the tide, and decreased the tidal range.
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    Risk assessment of typhoon hazard factors in China coastal areas
    NIU Hai-yan, LIU Min, LU Min, QUAN Rui-song, ZHANG Li-jia,WANG Jing-jing, XU Shi-yuan
    2011, 2011 (6):  20-25,35. 
    Abstract ( 4417 )   PDF (1915KB) ( 2875 )   Save
    Three indexes were chosen to establish a hazard assessment index system and model from wind, rain and storm surges . Then in a GIS environment, the risk of typhoon hazard factors were assessed. The assessment result showed that the risk of typhoon hazard factors is higher in Hainan province and the coastal areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang provinces; Shanghai and the coastal areas of Guangxi, Jiangsu provinces have medium risk of typhoon hazard factors together with the inland areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang provinces; while in Beijing, Tianjin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong provinces and the inland areas of Guangxi, Jiangsu provinces, the risk is lower. The result is valuable to provide reference for China coastal areas to deal with disasters.
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    Simulation of circulation and sea temperature in the Northwest Pacific
    SHEN Qi, ZHU Jian-rong, DUAN Yi-hong, SUN Ming-hua
    2011, 2011 (6):  26-35. 
    Abstract ( 3349 )   PDF (5971KB) ( 3595 )   Save
    Based on the ECOM-si, the circulation and temperature in the Northwest Pacific were simulated. The model includes the water flux at the lateral open boundaries, sea surface wind stress, heat flux, evaporation and precipitation at sea surface and so on. The model validation shows that the simulated sea temperatures are consistent with the section data, which were measured by Japan in the Northwest Pacific in each month of 2008. The model reproduces the North Equatorial Current, which flows westward at the surface in the low latitude Pacific, Kuroshio, which is a strong western boundary current, the Taiwan Warm Current and Tsushima Warm Current, the Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current and so on. In addition, the sea temperature distribution in the Northwest Pacific as well as in the South China Sea, East China Sea and Yellow Sea is also simulated by this model.
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    Performance of fluoride removal by Fe(Ⅲ)-modified resin
    WU Cheng-cheng, TIAN Hao-ting, ZHAO Ya-ping
    2011, 2011 (6):  36-46,74. 
    Abstract ( 3301 )   PDF (3310KB) ( 2627 )   Save
    Fluoride adsorption on Fe(Ⅲ) modified macroporous sulfonic acid resins has been investigated through batch experiments. The adsorption of fluoride on Fe(Ⅲ)-modified resins is independent of pH value,and the saturated adsorption capacity increase with the increase of temperature. The adsorption thermodynamics follows the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption kinetic follows Elovich kinetic and the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The common foreign ions in drinking water do not obviously influence on the adsorption capacity of fluoride. The adsorbent shows good dynamic performance in column experiments. Results show that the Fe-modified resins would be a promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from drinking water.
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    Effects of nutrient management on nutrient utilization of N,P and nitrate accumulation in lettuce
    NIAN Yao-ping, XIA Ti-yuan, HE Ming-zhu,ZHANG Jun-guo, DA Liang-jun
    2011, 2011 (6):  47-56. 
    Abstract ( 2981 )   PDF (810KB) ( 2388 )   Save
    By method of the field plot trial, the experiment was carried out in Dianchi Lake basin to study the influence of different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizing on lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa) production, nitrate content and nutrient utilization of N, P. 9 treatments were denoted by T1-T9, respectively. The results showed that: ① The lettuce production of T3(N90P126K180) was higher than other treatments, reaching 28 968.75 kg/ha; except for treatment of T4(N180P126K180)、T5(N270P126K180) and T8(N180P189K180), the contamination levels of nitrate content of the others came out to be Lv.4; after comprehensive consideration on nutrient utilization of N, P, the nutrient utilization of Lettuce showed to be higher after treatments of T4(N180P126K180) and T9(N90P63K180) with 17.42%,2.10% and 20.14%,2.05% respectively. ② Under the same amount of potash fertilizer and the treatment of appropriate nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers match fertilizing, the corresponding lettuce production, nitrate content and N, P fertilizer nutrient utilization were superior to treatments of partial fertilization or high fertilization. Therefore, control of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizing, reasonable optimization of ratios of nitrogen and phosphorus will improve the nutrient utilization and vegetables quality, which is of great importance for source controlling the agricultural non-point pollution.
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    Study on the purification effects of aquatic plant floating-beds for urban polluted water
    ZHAO Feng, ZHANG Yong, HUANG Min-sheng, WU Xiao-hui,ZHANG Yi-fan, HE Yan
    2011, 2011 (6):  57-64. 
    Abstract ( 3044 )   PDF (1048KB) ( 2581 )   Save
    Three kinds of ecological floating-beds were made of Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Nymphaea tetragona and Iris sibirica, respectively, to study their purification effects on removing pollutants of urban polluted water. The experiment lasted for 35 days. The results indicated that the three aquatic plants were adaptable to grow in the urban polluted water, and their biomass, height and root increased significantly at the end of the experiment. The growth rates were Nymphaea tetragona>Hydrocotyle vulgaris>Iris sibirica. Three plants had strong ability to remove CODCr, NH+4-N, TN and TP, which were higher than that in the control treatments (P<0.05). The removal rates of TN by Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Nymphaea tetragona and Myriophyllum verticillatum were 90.0%, 85.7% and 81.2%, respectively. In addition, the removal rates of TP by Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Nymphaea tetragona and Myriophyllum verticillatum were 68.6%, 57.0% and 62.8%, respectively. Based on their significant effects on nitrogen and phosphorus removal, the three plants are recommended as species of aquatic plants in ecological restoration engineering of urban polluted water.
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    Effects of tributyltin on mRNA expressions of thyroid hormone response genes in Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles
    CAO Qing-zhen, ZHU Pan, YUAN Jing, ZHANG Xiao-li,LIU Jun-qi, HUANG Min-sheng, SHI Hua-hong
    2011, 2011 (6):  65-74. 
    Abstract ( 2535 )   PDF (4228KB) ( 2424 )   Save
    Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles (NF51) were exposed to TBT for 48 and 96 h, respectively. Exposures to 50 and 200 ng·L-1 TBTCl showed no effects on the survival rate of tadpoles. The expression of TRβ and DI3 mRNA were significantly increased in the tails by 1~2.3 fold in the groups treated with 50 ng·L-1 TBTCl. The expression of TSHβ mRNA was increased in the tails by 2 fold after 48 h of exposure. RXRα mRNA was decreased by 0.4 fold in the brains and tails, and RXRβ mRNA was increased by 5.9 fold in the tails after 96 h of exposure. MCT8 mRNA was increased by nearly 3 fold in the tails in 50 ng·L-1 TBT treatment group and decreased by 3 fold or so in the brains in 50 ng·L-1 TBT treatment group after 96 h of exposure. These results suggest that TBT can result in the changes of multiple mRNA expressions and show high tissue-specific differences. These mRNA are involved in the synthesis, transportations, transformations and actions, which indicate that TBT shows thyroid hormone disrupting effects. The changes of related mRNA expressions indicate that TBT might disrupt the thyroid hormone system of tadpoles by binding with retinoid X receptor. Therefore, biomarkers are not only cost-effective and sensitive endpoints in screening the thyroid disrupting chemicals but also useful in identifying the mode of action of contaminants.
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    Ultrastructure of the microtubular cytoskeleton in Euplotes eurystomus(Hypotrichous, ciliophora)
    SHENG Xin, LI Qi-li, ZHANG Xiao-cui, ZHAI Nan, GU Fu-kang
    2011, 2011 (6):  75-80,107. 
    Abstract ( 2817 )   PDF (4683KB) ( 2594 )   Save
    Ultrastructure of the ciliature and cortical non-ciliated microtubular cytoskeleton in the Hypotrichous ciliate, Euplotes eurystomus were revealed using transmission election microscopy. The results show the former is consist of not only cilium and basal bodies but also their linking-fibrous, the basal body bracket, the associated microtubules and the fibrillar cirral basket; However, the latter is consist of the subpellicular microtubule layers, the microtubules in the subpellicular granular layer, the cytoplasmic microtubules and the microtubules in the cortical preiection-layers. These results offer some basic information for revealing the construction details of cortical microtubular cytoskeleton of hypotrichous ciliate in depth.
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    Analysis of hippocampal ripple osillations by application of Kalman filter
    ZHANG Lu, LIN Long-nian
    2011, 2011 (6):  81-88. 
    Abstract ( 2451 )   PDF (1260KB) ( 2440 )   Save
    This paper studied high frequency ripple (100~200 Hz) oscillations in hippocanpal CA1 area by applications of adaptive autoregressive (AAR) model and Kalman filter. Compared with traditional real time frequency analysis of time seies based on short term Fourier transfrom (STFT), improved time and frequency resolutions in time-frequency representation could be achieved by parametric methold obtained by AAR model and Kalman filter algorithms. Thus, the occurance of ripple oscillations and the variation of ripple power could be addresed more accurate by Kalman filter than that of STFT.
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    Identification of genes associated with age-related memory impairment in rats
    ZHANG Shuang, WANG Lin, DONG Su-zhen
    2011, 2011 (6):  89-99. 
    Abstract ( 2284 )   PDF (372KB) ( 2206 )   Save
    A large body of evidence indicates that memory impairment is associated with normal aging. Interestingly, some older individuals do not show any memory loss. To understand the molecular mechanisms of the age-related memory disorder, gene expression profiles of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex from 24-month-old memory-impaired and maze were examined using high-density DNA microarrays. The results demonstrated that 47 genes in the hippocampus and 37 genes in the entorhinal cortex showed dynamic changes in their expressions levels. Surprisingly, the overall patterns of gene expression changes in these two brain regions were significantly different. Nevertheless, a number of key genes involved in structure organization, neurotransmission, signaling transduction, transcription, immunity and oxidative signaling were differently expressed in both brain regions. These genes and signal pathways may play essential roles in the regulation of memory. Our results provided important information for understanding the molecular mechanism of age-related memory impairment.
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    Den habitat selection of China bamboo-rat (Rnizomys sinehsis) in spring
    YUAN Bao-dong
    2011, 2011 (6):  100-107. 
    Abstract ( 3377 )   PDF (412KB) ( 2737 )   Save
    Den habitat selection of the China bamboo-rat (R. sinehsis) was investigated from January to April in 2009 in Yuanbaoshan Nature Reserve, Guangxi. Thirteen ecological factors were recorded in 10 m×10 m plots of 85 samples, including 54 used samples and 31 unused samples. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis and Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that the difference among the canopy density, the distance to human disturbance, the shelter of wind, the shrub density, the distance to shrubs, the elevation and the food abundance were significant (P<0.05); while the difference among the water distance, the slope, the aspect, the slope position, the tree density and the tree distance were not significant (P>0.05). The habitat selection shared the following ecological factors: the well canopy density, the well shelter of wind, the well food richness, the slope among 20 to 40 degrees,the aspect toward east or south,the slope position with uphill or middle place, the elevation more than 1 800 m, the tree density less than 30 ind./plot, the distance to tree about 2 to 5 m,the shrub density about 1 000 to 5 000 m, the distance to shrubs less than 0.1 m,far away to water( more than 500 m) and the human disturbance distance more than 1 000 m. Principle component analysis indicated that the shelter, the water, the geography, the human disturbance and the food abundance affected the habitat character of the China bamboo-rat in spring.
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    Ex-treatment of immunoassay method for nodularin and cylindrospermopsins
    LI Shuang, YIN Hao-wen
    2011, 2011 (6):  108-114. 
    Abstract ( 2716 )   PDF (349KB) ( 2184 )   Save
    Effective solid phase extraction (SPE) ex-treatment method and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent asssay (ELISA) were developed for determining the nodularins(NOD) and cylindrospermopsins(CYN) in water samples. Due to the different polarities, two different ex-treatment methods were applied to NOD and CYN, respectively. The methods were developed as followed: ① For NOD,firstly the C18 column was activated by 10 mL methanol and 10 mL Milli-Q water; then the sample was applied to the column at 3-4 mL/min; after washing the column with 10 mL water, the NOD was eluted with 10 mL methanol; then the eluent was dried up with a rotary evaporator, and lastly the final volume was fixed to 1 mL with Milli-Q water for ELISA analyse. ② For CYN, the carb SPE tubes were activated with 10mL methanol and 10mL Milli-Q water; then the sample was applied to the tubes at 2-3 mL/min; after washing the tubes with 10mL methanol, the CYN was eluted with 12 mL methanol containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid;then the eluent was dried up with a rotary evaporator, lastly the final volume was fixed to 1 mL with Milli-Q water containing 0.1% ammonia for ELISA analyse. The results indicated that these methods can guarantee the good recoveries of NOD and CYN for ELISA analyse, which could reach to 94.3% and 77%, respectively.
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    Isolation and identification of the fungi which can convert Panax Notoginseng extract into ginsenoside Rg3
    WANG Qing, YUAN Ping, MAO Ren-gang, WANG Ju-yong, ZHENG Zhan
    2011, 2011 (6):  115-121,151. 
    Abstract ( 2418 )   PDF (1605KB) ( 2573 )   Save
    Twenty-three strains were isolated from soil where ginseng grew. The Panax Notoginseng extract were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. There were nine strains which can converte Panax Notoginseng extract into highly active ginsenoside, among which the TR-20 was the best one. Moreover, the TR-20 can convert Panax Notoginseng extract into ginsenoside Rg3(190.2 mg/L). The TR-20 was Aspergillus (Aspergillus sp.) with observation of morphology and cultural characteristics.
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    Study on meta-zooplankton community structure of Dianshan Lake
    FENG De-xiang, LIU Yi, YU Na, CHEN Liang, LI Er-chao, CHEN Li-qiao
    2011, 2011 (6):  122-131. 
    Abstract ( 3076 )   PDF (1428KB) ( 2536 )   Save
    The investigation of the community structure of zooplankton in Dianshan Lake was undertaken monthly during October 2008 to October 2009, including species composition, standing crop dynamics and diversities. A total of 80 metazooplanton species including 46 Rotifera (58%), 21 Cladocera (26%) and 13 Copepoda (16%) were encountered. The dominant species were five species of rotifera (Keratella cochlearis, Keratella quadrata, Keratella valga, Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus diversicornis), three species of copepod (Microcyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus dorrii and Schmackeria forbesi) and two other species of cladocera which showed a trend of miniaturization (Bosmina longirostris, Brachionus coregoni and Moina micrura). The zooplankton mean density was 356±334 ind./L and ranged from 52 ind./L in May 2009 to 1260 ind./L in December 2008, and the zooplankton average biomass was 12.67±12.53 mg/L, with the highest value in July 2009 and lowest in December 2008, which was 40.85 mg/L and 1.45 mg/L respectively. Regarding the distribution of the sampling sites, the highest values of the yearly mean density and biomass both appearred in Site 11, and the lowest density in Site 9 with the lowestbiomass in Site 7, respectively. The value of Shannon-Wiener index(H) in Dianshan Lake fluctuated between 0.841 and 2.187, with 1.718 as average. Upon the evaluation of biological diversity index, the water quality of Dianshan Lake could be regarded as α mesosaprobity according to the results analysis.
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    Research on separation method of highly polar compound DMC and impurities in it by HILIC
    HAN Bing-bing, WANG Cui-cui, LI Xin-jun, ZOU Xin-zhuo
    2011, 2011 (6):  132-138. 
    Abstract ( 3284 )   PDF (1517KB) ( 2390 )   Save
    HILIC method was established to separate and analyze highly polar compound methacryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and its impurities. Using two different chromatographic columns:HP-Cyano column and X-Bridge HILIC column,highly polar compound DMC and its impurities were all well separated by gradient elution using acetonitrile and water as mobile phase. With the two different chromatographic columns, four impurities in DMC were separated, such as dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DM),methacrylic acid (MAA), choline chloride (CC) and Hydroquinone monomethyl ether (MQ). This method has higher practical value, which can be used effectively in separated highly polar compounds.
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    Current and future trends of international standards for e-Education technology: ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36, its 24th plenary, WG meetings and open forum
    WU Yong-he, GUO Wei, ZHU Zhi-ting
    2011, 2011 (6):  139-151. 
    Abstract ( 2219 )   PDF (1069KB) ( 2644 )   Save
    First, it makes a brief introduction about ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 and its seven working groups (WGs), describes the current development of standards for e-Education technology, emphatically analyzes the relationship among the WGs; introduces the progress in the 24th SC36 Plenary and WG meetings; then it summarizes the concerns on thematic reports and proceedings of open forum, and anticipates the future development. Finally, integrating analysis of the whole meeting, it gives the forecast of international standards, emphatically analyzes the new relationship of the WGs.
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