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    25 November 2018, Volume 2018 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Aerobic denitrifiers and the state of research in their use for sewage treatment and environmental remediation
    DING Yu, ZHANG Ting-yue, HUANG Min-sheng, HE Yan, CAO Cheng-jin
    2018, 2018 (6):  1-11,67.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.001
    Abstract ( 179 )   HTML ( 161 )   PDF (1037KB) ( 378 )   Save
    The use of aerobic denitrifying bacteria has introduced a new concept to traditional biological nitrogen removal given its unique advantages for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. This paper reviewed the separation methods of aerobic denitrifiers as well as their respective types and influencing factors. The mechanism of aerobic denitrification is explored from the perspective of electron transfer bottleneck theory and enzymology; meanwhile, the applications for wastewater treatment and environmental remediation are also introduced. Studies have shown that:temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), carbon source, the carbon to nitrogen ratio, and pH value all have effects on the aerobic denitrification process; and aerobic denitrifying bacteria have efficient nitrogen removal efficiency under suitable conditions. However, at present, aerobic denitrifying bacteria still have insufficient impact for environmental remediation applications. There is a gap between laboratory results and engineering applications, so further investigation is needed. This paper systematically summarizes the separation methods, types, reaction mechanisms, influencing factors, and applications of aerobic denitrifying bacteria in wastewater treatment and environmental remediation.
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    Experimental study on a new enhanced in-situ denitrification device for upgrading domestic wastewater treatment plants
    CUI He, YANG Yin-chuan, HUANG Min-sheng, YANG Le, YIN Chao, HE Yan, CAO Cheng-jin
    2018, 2018 (6):  12-21.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.002
    Abstract ( 245 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1328KB) ( 370 )   Save
    To effectively strengthen the nitrogen removal efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), a novel deep denitrification device (Tubular bio-reactor device, TBD) was developed. Four kinds of solid materials (loofah, palm fiber, bagasse, and fibrous fillers) were used as fillers for the TBD. The best filler type was determined by comparing the denitrification performance of TBDs with different fillers. Then, high-throughput sequencing results of the matrix biofilm were used to analyze the denitrification mechanism. The results showed that the best removal rate of nitrogen from water was achieved with the TBD filled with bagasse. For this TBD, the removal rates of NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2--N and TN were 72%, 64%, 97%, and 82%, respectively, and NH4+-N and TN concentrations both attained Grade 1-A of the Chinese-National discharge standard for WWTPs (GB 18918-2002). TBD filled with bagasse had a high abundance and diversity of microbial species with a Chao1 index of 9 743.55 and a Shannon index of 6.37, and the denitrification-related genus in the microbial community structure was dominant (23.75%). In addition, nitrification (7.73%) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (2.0%) related genera were detected in the biofilm sample. The results suggest that the internal environment of TBD filled with "bagasse" was good for the enrichment and growth of denitrifying-related bacteria. This study was aimed at providing a scientific basis and parameters for TBDs used in engineering applications.
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    Screening of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrifying bacteria and its nitrogen removal characteristics
    ZHANG Ting-yue, DING Yu, HUANG Min-sheng
    2018, 2018 (6):  22-31,87.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.003
    Abstract ( 307 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1031KB) ( 394 )   Save
    In order to find a high-efficiency denitrification method, a Pseudomonas genus-based strain was selected from the sediment of Cascade Pond in Longhong Ravine. The strain had heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification capability and was named LHJ-1. The results showed that the bacterial consortium LHJ-1 had clear heterotrophic nitrification capability; the utilization rates of NH4+-N and TOC were 99.90% and 56.69%, respectively. Concurrently, it demonstrated good denitrification ability, with conversion rates of NO3--N and NO2--N at 92.46% and 89.67%, respectively. Experiments evaluating environmental effects showed that various factors (e.g., C/N ratio, carbon source, pH, and DO concentration) could have a significant influence on the denitrification effect. Accordingly, different environmental factors should be investigated in practical applications to determine the optimum growth conditions for the best nitrogen removal efficiency. The screening of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrifying bacteria consortium LHJ-1 has broad application prospects for both denitrification and decarbonization of water.
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    Development history of sponge cities and the state of research on runoff pollution control
    YANG Yin-chuan, XIAO Bing, CUI He, HUANG Min-sheng, ZOU Ying, HE Yan, CAO Cheng-jin
    2018, 2018 (6):  32-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.004
    Abstract ( 257 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (1089KB) ( 347 )   Save
    Based on the development history of sponge city construction system in China and abroad, this paper explores the similarities and differences and development experiences of sponge cities in various countries. Taking the rain garden as the research object, this paper analyzes the effect of its structural composition, hydraulic characteristics, and plant configuration on runoff pollution; these can be used to provide a theoretical reference for the construction of sponge cities in China. Finally, potential problems and risks in the construction of the sponge city were presented, and suggestions and prospects for the construction of a sponge city such as mosquito breeding and plugging are presented, and suggestions and prospects for the construction of a sponge city in China are proposed. It is important to learn from the development history of foreign stormwater management systems and realize the "Sinification" of stormwater management in practice by:adapting to local conditions, focusing on regional differences, strengthening field trials, and exploring the control mechanism of sponge cities on runoff pollution. Meanwhile, the potential risks and problems related to plugging and mosquito breeding in sponge city construction should also be taken seriously.
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    Analysis of the pollutant emission reduction effect of a typical sponge project
    YANG Yin-chuan, XIAO Bin, CUI He, HUANG Min-sheng, YIN Chao, HE Yan, CAO Cheng-jin
    2018, 2018 (6):  43-49,112.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.005
    Abstract ( 231 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1225KB) ( 360 )   Save
    Using a typical sponge city initiative (rain garden and grassed swale) in Chizhou, one of the earliest and largest sponge projects in China, as the research object, we tracked and monitored manholes in two residential areas one where the sponge project was implemented and one without transformation. Effluent quality of runoff rainwater was monitored to investigate the emission reduction effect of pollutants from the sponge project on runoff in residential areas. The results showed that the concentration of effluent pollutants in residential areas after renovation was significantly lower than that in unmodified rural areas. Rain gardens had lower concentrations of effluent than those in grassed swale, and the water quality of rainwater gardens was more stable. Finally, the economic and technical indicators of rain garden and grassed swale were analyzed.
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    Performance and factors of phosphorus interception in storing multi-pond wetlands in the Erhai Lake Basin
    LI Dan, HUANG Min-sheng, ZHENG Bing-hui, CHU Zhao-sheng
    2018, 2018 (6):  50-58,121.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.006
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1232KB) ( 312 )   Save
    To investigate the characteristics and factors of phosphorus interception, phosphorus concentration from 12 storing multi-pond wetlands were analyzed. Evaluation of the removal efficiency and identification of the key factors of phosphorus removal were executed in the Erhai Lake Basin. The results showed that the water quality was effectively improved because phosphorus pollutants from the surface source pollution were intercepted in the storing multi-pond wetlands. The average interception efficiency value of η(PO43--P), η(TP) and η(SS) were 43.44%~93.88%、27.71%~89.67% and 21.84%~62.12%, respectively. Both the phosphorus concentration of the influent and the efficiency of phosphorus interception in the dry season were higher, respectively, than those in the wet season. Intermittent outflow of effluent provided a residence time which was long enough for the removal of pollutants in the dry season. While ρo(TP) had a significantly positive correlation with ρi(PO43--P) (R=0.297) and ρi(TP) (R=0.304). η(TP) showed a significant positive correlation with ρi(PO43--P) (R=0.665) and ρi(TP) (R=0.740). The efficiency of phosphorus removal primarily depended on the proportion of phosphate and the TP concentration of the influent. This study may provide support as an engineering case of multi-pond wetlands for the reduction of phosphorus into lakes, water pollution control in basins, and water restoration.
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    Enhanced denitrification for rural domestic sewage by a vertical flow constructed wetland
    CUI He, LU Xin-yu, CHANG Yue-ya, HUANG Min-sheng, LI Dan, HE Yan, CAO Cheng-jin
    2018, 2018 (6):  59-67.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.007
    Abstract ( 229 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1698KB) ( 345 )   Save
    Two pilot-scale vertical flow artificial wetlands with "ceramic" as a single filler and "ceramic+zeolite" as composite fillers were studied, and their respective denitrification performance for rural domestic sewage was evaluated. To understand the denitrification mechanism of the two wetlands, the contribution rate of nitrogen removal by plant absorption and the diversity of the microbial community were analyzed. The object of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for the application of this wetland design to enhance denitrification at rural domestic sewage treatment plants. The results show that the mean removal rate of NH4+-N and TN by the vertical flow artificial wetland with "ceramic+zeolite" as composite fillers was 23% and 25% higher, respectively, than that of "ceramic" as single filler; the NH4+-N and TN concentration of the "ceramic+zeolite" wetland both attained Grade 1-B (GB 18918-2002). The contribution rate of plant absorption for nitrogen removal in the two wetlands was both less than 0.5%. Hence, nitrogen removal was primarily dependent on adsorption by the filler materialss and purification by microorganisms. The biofilm of plant roots and fillers in the wetland with "ceramic+zeolite" composite filler had better microbial community diversity. The concentration of bacteria with nitrogen removal capability (nitrification and denitrification) in the two vertical flow constructed wetlands were substantial, enabling enhanced denitrification of rural domestic sewage.
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    A review of the effects of endogenous sulfur on anaerobic ammonium oxidation in urban rivers
    HE Yan, CHEN Jing-han, HUANG Min-sheng, XU Yi-wen
    2018, 2018 (6):  68-73,130.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.008
    Abstract ( 198 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (977KB) ( 289 )   Save
    This paper reviews the state of current research on endogenous sulfur intervening in anaerobic ammonium oxidation as well as possible coupled microbial processes. Future research should focus on the role of new-type autotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidation in nitrogen-cycling processes in urban rivers, including sulfur-driven autotrophic partial denitrification with anaerobic ammonium oxidation, sulfate-type anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and ferric iron reduction coupled with anaerobic ammonium oxidation; in addition, future research should explore the role of endogenous sulfur in intervening in anaerobic ammonium oxidation and their coupled progress in treating urban rivers with a high level of nitrogen and a low C/N ratio. This is of great significance for solving the issue of high nitrogen levels in treating polluted urban rivers as well as improving our understanding of microbial processes of N-and S-cycling in aquatic environments.
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    A review of the effect of endogenous sulfur on the environmental behavior of phosphorus in sediment from polluted rivers and lakes
    XU Yi-wen, HAN Jing, HE Yan, HUANG Min-sheng
    2018, 2018 (6):  74-80.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.009
    Abstract ( 214 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1027KB) ( 296 )   Save
    Sulfur and phosphorus are important elements in the geochemical cycle. Both their environmental behavior and their coupled relationship are intertwined to regulate the release of endogenous pollution from sediment in polluted rivers and lakes. This paper summarizes the environmental behavior of sulfur and phosphorous as well as the latest research progress on their coupling mechanisms. The study also notes that sulfur-driven eutrophication is an important type of water eutrophication in polluted rivers and lakes. Lastly, we discuss future perspectives on related research in terms of coupled S-cycling with other biogeochemical cycles, which can provide referential significance for the treatment of endogenous pollution in polluted rivers and lakes.
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    Biodegration of LAS in an urban malodorous river
    YIN Chao, HUANG Min-sheng, HE Yan, CUI He, WANG Di-fang, ZHANG Ting-yue, XIAO Bing
    2018, 2018 (6):  81-87.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.010
    Abstract ( 255 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (943KB) ( 244 )   Save
    Biodegradation of the anion-surfactant LAS in the urban malodorous water of Liwan River in Putuo District (Shanghai) was studied by "river-die away"under different conditions. In particular, the influences of temperature, pH, initial concentration of LAS, nutrients (C6H12O6) and aeration conditions on the biodegradation of LAS were investigated. The study showed that when the temperature increased from 10℃ to 30℃, the half-life of LAS decreased from 6.5 days to 2.5 days. The biodegration of surfactant at pH=8.5±0.2 was slightly better than that at pH=7.5±0.2 and pH=9.5±0.2. With greater initial concentration, the half-life of LAS increased from 2.9 days to 3.4 days. C6H12O6 inhibited degradation of LAS, but the degradation of LAS accelerated under continuous aeration conditions.
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    Coupling of endogenous sulfur and iron with nitrogen behavior in a heavily polluted tidal river
    GUAN Hui-min, ZHU Jin, HE Yan, HUANG Min-sheng, ZHOU Kun, ZHU Lin-lin
    2018, 2018 (6):  88-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.011
    Abstract ( 234 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1724KB) ( 298 )   Save
    To study the impact of tidal effects on endogenous sulfur(S), iron (Fe), and nitrogen (N), as well as their possible coupling, the present work investigated the dynamic variations of endogenous S, Fe and N using a simulated heavily polluted tidal river system. In addition, Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to elucidate the coupling of endogenous S, Fe and N behavior. The results showed a NH4+-N reduction rate of (82.2±1.92)% and a TN reduction rate of (86.49±2.31)% for the simulated tidal system. The simulation suggested that a tidal alternation facilitated the formation of an oxic-anoxic-anaerobic microenvironment at the sediment-overlying water interface and thus stimulated the coupled nitrification-denitrification process, which was in favor of ammonium and total nitrogen removal. Grey relational analysis (GRA) showed the highest integrated grey relational grade between nitrate and reduced sulfur (0.910 5) and nitrate and iron (0.858 7) in interstitial water. The results indicated that nitrate was most affected by reduced sulfur and iron; we postulate that endogenous sulfur and iron with nitrogen might exist by sulfur-driven autotrophic denitrification or iron-driven autotrophic denitrification. This study may provide reference for treatment and restoration of heavily polluted tidal rivers.
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    Analysis of microbial community composition from media used to strengthen total nitrogen removal from an urban river
    HAN Jing, XU Yi-wen, HE Yan, HUANG Min-sheng
    2018, 2018 (6):  97-104.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.012
    Abstract ( 204 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (2911KB) ( 265 )   Save
    We compared the removal rate of total nitrogen in urban rivers with three kinds of media (biochar, felt, and non-woven fabric). After 84 days in operation, it was found that non-woven fabric increased the removal rate of total nitrogen by 23.4% over the control group; felt increased the removal rate of total nitrogen by 13.9% over the control group; and biochar had a poor effect on total nitrogen removal. The microbial diversity and community composition of different media-enhanced groups were then systematically explored; the results showed that non-woven fabric can significantly increase microbial diversity and abundance. Moreover, proteobacteria, which is related to nitrogen conversion, was found to be significantly higher in the non-woven fabric group than the felt and biochar groups, especially the abundance of denitrifying bacteria (Azospirillum, Thiobacillus, and Azoarcus). The abundance of methanogen, which is in competition with the denitrifying bacteria Syntrophorhabdus, was found to be lower in non-woven fabric than in the control and biochar groups. The microbial flora structure of the felt group showed a similar trend to that of the non-woven fabric group, but the abundance of denitrifying bacteria was lower. The microbial community composition of the biochar group was the most similar to that of the control group. It is speculated that non-woven fabric has better biocompatibility than other groups; this is beneficial for biofilm formation and thereby promotes the growth of denitrifying bacteria. In a comprehensive comparison, non-woven media materials are more conducive to the removal of total nitrogen in urban rivers.
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    Larvae breeding conditions of “sponge” in a sponge city and its mechanic analysis: A case study of Chizhou in Anhui Province
    XIAO Bing, YANG Yin-chuan, LU Xin-yu, LI Xin-ran, HUANG Min-sheng, YIN Chao, HE Yan
    2018, 2018 (6):  105-112.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.013
    Abstract ( 241 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1275KB) ( 281 )   Save
    The goal of a sponge city is to solve the water problems faced by a city. However, there may exist risks of larvae breeding owing to the stagnant water in sponges. In order to study the status of larvae breeding and its factors in sponges, as a basis for mosquito prevention and control, this study monitored stagnant water, water quality, and mosquito larvae of typical sponges in Chizhou from March to August of 2017. The results showed that larvae bred in Rain Pond 1 of Chizhou No.1 Middle School because of poor water quality (below Class V), extended duration of water retention (2——3 months), adequate blood meal, and the lack of predators; however, larvae were not found in the rest of the sponges. The monthly larvae densities from June to August of 2017 were 1.6, 2.2 and 1.0 per dip, respectively, with 100%, 50%, and 20% dip index, requiring related control management. Accordingly, this risk should be considered in the planning, design, and maintenance stages of a sponge.
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    Mosquito breeding conditions and analysis of mechanisms of the urban water-green combined system: A case study on the riparian zone of Changfeng Park and the drainage system of Shanghai's west outer-ring greenbelt
    XIAO Bing, LU Xin-yu, HUANG Min-sheng, LI Xin-ran, YIN Chao, HE Yan
    2018, 2018 (6):  113-121.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.014
    Abstract ( 211 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (4842KB) ( 293 )   Save
    This paper studied two kinds of urban water-green combined systems, where mosquito larvae were found, hoping to provide a theoretical basis for urban mosquito control and prevention through the comparison and analysis of different factors. The results showed that the larval density in the outer-ring greenbelt drainage system, whose water quality was below Class V, was significantly higher than the larval density in the riparian zone of Changfeng Park with Class IV water (p<0.05); this can be attributed to the relatively poorer water quality and plant cover, fewer predators, weaker illumination, and so on. The larval density reached 157.6 per dip in peak season in the west outer-ring greenbelt drainage system. Because of the relative closure and overcrowded vegetation, mosquito larvae in the Calamus Pit only appeared in late spring and early summer, but with high density. The larval density was low in Lotus Pond owing to the open water surface and the connection with Yinchu Lake. The rock-filled revetment of Tiebi Hill provides shelters for larval survival. Both areas had a risk for mosquito-borne diseases, requiring relevant measures such as filling, revetment restructuration, and environmental improvement. The overwintering form of Culex pipiens pallens are adults and the time difference of the larval presence can be attributed to the availability of blood meal. The larval density was negatively correlated to DO and chlorophyll-a concentration, but positively correlated to NH4+-N, TP, BOD5, and CODMn.
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    Analysis of water quality and mosquito larval breeding at the tail water wetland of the Shanghai East Water Purification Plant
    LU Xin-yu, XIAO Bing, HUANG Min-sheng, HE Yan, LI Xin-ran, YIN Chao, LENG Pei-en
    2018, 2018 (6):  122-130.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2018.06.015
    Abstract ( 221 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (2199KB) ( 274 )   Save
    In this study, a constructed wetland for advanced treatment of tail water at the Shanghai East Water Purification Plant was taken as an example to explore the relationship between environmental factors, such as water quality and mosquito (Culex pipiens pallens) larval breeding. The comprehensive pollution index (P Value) method and organic pollution index (A Value) method were used to evaluate the water quality of wetland from May to November of 2017. The breeding status of mosquito larvae at 14 sample points in the wetland were monitored by the standard dipping method during this period. The subsequent analysis showed that:① The water quality of the wetland was better than Class V of the environmental quality standard for surface water; ② The larval density was higher in water whose P Value was equal to or greater than 143.1 per spoon; ③ The larval density was high between May and August and declined with the decrease of temperature; ④ The larval density was significantly lower in areas where the water surface could be exposed to direct sunlight (p<0.05); and ⑤ The larval density was small when the concentration of Chlorophyll a was high, and excessive duckweed coverage can inhibit mosquito breeding.
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