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    25 March 2019, Volume 2019 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Mathematics
    Convergence analysis of iterative methods for strictly sub-diagonally dominant linear equations
    CAI Jing
    2019, 2019 (2):  1-6,55.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.001
    Abstract ( 180 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (430KB) ( 360 )   Save
    The Jacobi iterative method, Guass-Seidel iterative method, and SOR iterative method are commonly used in solving linear equations. When the coefficient matrix of a system of linear equations is strictly sub-diagonally dominant, we demonstrate that the Jacobi, Guass-Seider, and SOR iterative methods are all convergent. By comparing the upper bounds of error for the three iterative methods, we show that the upper bound of error for the Guass-Seidel iterative method is minimal.
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    Weight one Eisenstein series associated with imaginary quadratic fields
    SHEN Li-chien
    2019, 2019 (2):  7-20.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.002
    Abstract ( 153 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (396KB) ( 259 )   Save
    We consider a family of weight one Eisenstein series associated with the imaginary quadratic fields. The subspace of the Eisenstein series associated with the Kronecker symbol is characterized by the quadratic forms generated from the genus theory of Gauss; we will derive a family of identities connected with these quadratic fields.
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    Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-HU equation hierarchy
    FANG Fang, HU Bei-bei
    2019, 2019 (2):  21-31.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.003
    Abstract ( 130 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (289KB) ( 253 )   Save
    In the present paper, a super-HU hierarchy was constructed based on super-matrix Lie algebra and super-trace identity. In addition, an integrable super-HU equation hierarchy with self-consistent sources was established. Finally, we set up infinitely many conservation laws for an integrable super-HU equation hierarchy by introducing two variables F and G.
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    Average homogeneous and non-homogeneous weighted receiving time in recursive weighted Koch networks
    ALHADDAD Mansour A. A., MOHAMMAD Gareeb
    2019, 2019 (2):  32-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.004
    Abstract ( 161 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1284KB) ( 319 )   Save
    In this paper, we introduce the recursive homogeneous weighted Koch network model for real systems with a scaling factor t ∈ (0, 1) and the non-homogeneous model with scaling factors t, s∈ (0, 1) or t, r, s ∈ (0, 1). These models were constructed using the recursive division method and motivated by experimental study of aviation networks and metabolic networks. As a process of fundamental dynamics, we study the recursive homogeneous and non-homogeneous weighted Koch networks with a random walk; for all steps, the walker who is starting from an existing node moves uniformly to one of its nearest neighbors Γ(j) lying on the layers Le, e=0, 1, …, m. In order to study homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, the recursive division method and singular value decomposition were used to calculate the sum of the mean weighted longest paths (MWLP) for all nodes absorbed at the target node placed in one of the merging nodes {pi:i=1, 2, 3}. Finally, in a large network, the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous models grows sub-linearly with the network's order.
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    Borel directions of solutions of a second order linear complex differential equation
    WEI Wen-long, HUANG Zhi-gang
    2019, 2019 (2):  49-55.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.005
    Abstract ( 159 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (284KB) ( 290 )   Save
    In this paper, we consider the Borel directions of solutions of the differential equation f" + A(z)f' +B(z)f=0. By using Nevanlinna's value distribution theory and assuming that A(z) is extremal for Yang's inequality, we provide conditions for B(z) that guarantee that every non-trivial solution f of the equation is of infinite order; we also calculate the number of Borel directions of these solutions.
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    Inverse completion for a class of Hamiltonian matrices
    BAI Xiao-li, ZHANG Lan
    2019, 2019 (2):  56-62,68.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.006
    Abstract ( 154 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (443KB) ( 284 )   Save
    In this paper, the inverse completion of a class of Hamiltonian matrices is studied by applying rank theory and invertible conditions for matrices. Taking advantage of the structural characteristics of Hamiltonian matrices, the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions are proved and the expression of solutions are obtained. Furthermore, the conclusions are extended to anti-Hamiltonian matrices, and the corresponding results are obtained. Finally, some examples are used to verify the conclusions.
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    Localized theorems of finite groups with Mp-supplemented subgroups
    BAO Hong-wei, LI Feng-qing, ZHANG Jia, TANG Ju-ping
    2019, 2019 (2):  63-68.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.007
    Abstract ( 129 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (281KB) ( 294 )   Save
    A subgroup H of G is Mp-supplemented in G, if there exists a subgroup B of G such that G=HB and TB < G for every maximal subgroup T of H with|H:T|=pα. Based on the idea of localization, by using the Mp-supplemented properties of some primary subgroups to study the structure of finite groups, we obtained sufficient conditions for p-nilpotent and p-supersolvable groups.
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    Computer Science
    Dynamic routing algorithm based on local information in a free-scale network
    HAN Ding-ding, LIU Kang, TANG Ming
    2019, 2019 (2):  69-76,96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.008
    Abstract ( 177 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1002KB) ( 310 )   Save
    We proposed a packet routing algorithm with two tunable parameters, α and β, which control the routing preference of degree and queue length, respectively, based on local information in a scale-free network. By adjusting the parameters to change network transmission capability, we found an optimal combination of the two parameters.Other dynamic properties, including average packet travel time and traffic load were also studied. Simulation research showed that the proposed algorithm not only reducedpacket loss rates, but also improved transmission capability and alleviated traffic congestion. We also compared the algorithm with other classical routing algorithms, based on real networks, and the proposed algorithm also displayed good results.
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    A Reference Model approach for developing agricultural big data infrastructures
    ZHAO Zhi-ming, LIAO Xiao-feng, WANG Xiao-ling, RUAN Chun-sheng, ZHU Yi-feng, FENG Dong-sheng
    2019, 2019 (2):  77-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.009
    Abstract ( 256 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (5811KB) ( 420 )   Save
    Big data infrastructures provide services for the management of data over the course of their lifecycle, and offer users the ability to effectively discover and access data for different application purposes. These emerging infrastructures essentially enable system-level data-centric research; third-party innovation, however, often requires data from different sources. The construction of big data infrastructures faces important interoperability challenges arising from the diverse nature of data acquisition, annotation, and identification performed in different research domains. Moreover, the evolution of different infrastructures is often driven by the specific interests of researchers, in their respective domains, and the constraints of legacy technology. The ENVRI Reference Model (ENVRI RM) is an output of the EU H2020 ENVRI and ENVRI PLUS project, targeting the aforementioned challenges in the context of environmental sciences by modeling environmental research infrastructures with a multi-viewpoints framework; these viewpoints include science, information, computation, engineering, and technology. Each viewpoint describes concrete aspects of a system definition and forms a mechanism to improve the interoperability across the whole system as well as alignment with existing legacy systems. The challenges encountered in the Shanghai Agricultural Big Data Infrastructures construction work are similar to those detected in the ENVRI RM, which provides an ideal place to test the generalizability of the ENVRI RM to other domains. Using the ENVRI RM as a reference, this paper presents an Agricultural Reference Model, which includes the five aforementioned viewpoints, but with consideration of the specifics of the agricultural domain, to address the problems encountered in revising and upgrading the Shanghai Agricultural Big Data Infrastructures. Two use cases are introduced to demonstrate its effectiveness. One is to improve the requirement engineering procedure with the community and role context captured using the Agricultural Reference Model. The other is to upgrade the large volume of existing systems to increase interconnections via the interoperability mechanisms provided by the Agricultural Reference Model.
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    Life Science
    Non-orthogonal corrections to wave functions in perturbation theory
    SHEN Jia-yin, XUE Xun
    2019, 2019 (2):  97-105,115.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.010
    Abstract ( 176 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (534KB) ( 286 )   Save
    Time-independent perturbation theory is fairly accurate for the correction of non-degenerate energy levels, but its accuracy is not satisfactory for the correction of wave functions. After examining the derivation process of perturbation theory, it was found that the reason for the difference in precision may be related to the Orthogonality Assumption. The Orthogonality Assumption-an arbitrary-order modified wave function above zero order is orthogonal to the zero-order wave function-is a condition used in establishing perturbation theory. This paper explored the Orthogonality Assumption in detail and obtained a constraint condition on higher-order modified wave functions by using the normalized properties of the wave function; this condition implies that the accuracy at second-order and above is not suitable for use with the Orthogonality Assumption. It can be shown that without introducing the Orthogonality Assumption, the result of the energy level correction is exactly the same as that of the orthogonal situation, but the result of the modified wave function has a difference that cannot be ignored. This phenomenon can reasonably explain the previous accuracy problem. In this paper, the first three-order non-orthogonal corrective wave function of the one-dimensional charged harmonic oscillator system in the homogeneous electric field is taken as a specific example. By comparing the analytical solution of this system, it can be demonstarted that the non-orthogonal correction of the wave function has higher accuracy than the orthogonal correction. The paper briefly discusses generalization to the degenerate perturbation theory. Combined with recent progress on the Stark problem, it offers a possible method to check for correction of non-orthogonal perturbation.
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    Research on parton fragmentation functions of protons
    LI Pei-yu, RUAN Jian-hong
    2019, 2019 (2):  106-115.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.011
    Abstract ( 120 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (460KB) ( 240 )   Save
    Parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions are fundamental to analyzing high energy experiments.The relationship between the proton valence quark distribution function q(x) and fragmentation function D(x) is analyzed. We find that the simple function D(x)=(1/6)q(x) for a valence quark is a good approximation to describe the available data. We set up a group of new parameterizations of fragmentation functions for protons. Differential cross section data were calculated and compared with recent research. We hope that our work can diminish uncertainties when fitting parton fragmentation functions of protons.
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    Complexity of black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics
    LI Li, DING Yu-chen, WANG Tao
    2019, 2019 (2):  116-121.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.012
    Abstract ( 140 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (293KB) ( 282 )   Save
    Black holes usually have two horizons in nonlinear electrodynamics based on the Einstein gravity theory. Starting with the action and a spherical metric of general forms in this theory, we calculated the electric potential of the black hole as well as the action of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. The action turned out to be equal to the electric charge multiplied by the potential difference between the inner and outer horizons. Following the conjecture of complexity-action duality proposed recently by Susskind et al., the action can be interpreted as the computational complexity of the quantum states on the Anti-de Sitter boundary. In the special cases of the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the Born-Infeld black hole, our general results agree well with the results published in the literature.
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    A first principle investigation of organic-inorganic hybrid peroviskite (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4
    XIE Wei-jia, WANG Qian-qian, XIE Wen-hui
    2019, 2019 (2):  122-127.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.013
    Abstract ( 130 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (773KB) ( 389 )   Save
    The structural and electronic properties of the two-dimensional (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 monolayer were investigated by employing first principle electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory. The optical absorption properties were studied by further analyzing chemical bonding and orbital characteristics. In addition, the influence of a vertical electric field on the electronic structure was also investigated. The results demonstrate that there is a significant external electric field-driven energy gap modulation effect, and that the semiconductor energy gap should be closed when the external electric field is larger than 0.45 V/Å.
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    An investigation of the invasive plants in Nanjing Botanical Garden Memorial Sun Yat-Sen
    YIN Qian, WANG Hong-jiang, LIU Xing-jian
    2019, 2019 (2):  128-134,163.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.014
    Abstract ( 162 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1111KB) ( 263 )   Save
    In order to understand the status of invasive plants in Nanjing Botanical Garden Memorial Sun Yat-Sen, the species, origin, life form, frequency and damage of alien invasive plants were surveyed through routing and sampling. The results showed that there were 65 invasive plants in the botanical garden area; Compositae constituted the largest proportion, accounting for 32.31% of the total, followed by graminaceous plants, accounting for 9.23% of the total. Among the invasive plants, 7 species have caused serious harm, 44 species were introduced from America (the largest point of origin), and most were annual herbs (46.15%). Wasteland and meadows under poor management are the most vulnerable habitat types. The invasion of some species has correlation with the introduction of new plants in the botanical garden.
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    Ecological and Environmental Science
    The effect of dissolved silicic acid on circular motion behaviors in pennatae: A case study on diatom Navicula arenaria var. rostellata
    WANG Feng, ZHAO Li-xia, ZHU Zheng, HU Wen-si, LIU Quan-xing
    2019, 2019 (2):  135-146.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.015
    Abstract ( 175 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1615KB) ( 320 )   Save
    Diatoms play an important role in the primary productivity of aquatic systems and in driving the global silicon and carbon cycles in biogeochemistry. Navicula (Navicula arenaria var. rostellata) is a widely distributed diatom species in polluted aquatic and coastal ecosystems. In this study, we treat Navicula as the research object, using f/2+Si culture medium 30 mg/L dSi concentration as a reference to set different dSi concentration gradients (1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 60 mg/L, 120 mg/L, 240 mg/L); based on the Navicula experiments and tracking of cell trajectories and behavior analysis, we explore the effects of different concentrations of dSi on diatom movement behaviors and diffusion coefficients. We found that:Their trajectories display circular motion associated with stochastic disruption. The curvature of the circular arc remains unchanged, and the direction and speed of the motion change significantly at the reverse time point; when the angle is less than 90 degrees; moreover, the velocity decreases before and after the reverse. Their motions display ballistic behavior on short time scales, Brownian-motion on long time scales, and super-diffusion on intermediate time scales. Miniscule and high dSi concentrations effectively inhibit active dispersal, whereas low and intermediate dSi concentrations promote dispersal on diatom cells. Here, our study of individual movement behaviors on diatoms helps to improve our understanding of foraging strategy and aggregation behavior in diatom biofilms; in addition, it provides new ideas on the outbreak of algal bloom, the marine biofouling phenomena, and marine snow phenomena.
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    Evaluation of ecosystem services for urban forests in Shanghai based on a distribution measurement methodology
    HAN Yu-jie, SUN Wen, ZHANG Wen-wen
    2019, 2019 (2):  147-155.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.016
    Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1858KB) ( 283 )   Save
    Using continuous observation and the inventory system for forest ecosystems, according to the People's Republic of China standard LY/T 1721-2008 Specifications for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China, combined with forest resource monitoring data from 2016, this study assessed the value of forest ecosystem services in Shanghai. The results showed that the total value of forest ecosystem services in urban forests in Shanghai in 2016 was 12.58 billion yuan and mean value was 127.5 thousand yuan per hectare. The value of the eight service functions was distributed as follows:forest recreation (26.03%), atmosphere environmental purification (22.03%), carbon fixation and oxygen released (20.24%), water conservation (17.14%), biodiversity conservation (9.10%), soil conservation (3.53%), forest nutrition storage (1.84%), contribution of forest to prevent natural calamities(0.09%). From the results of this study, the value of forest recreation was the highest. Forest recreation, atmosphere environmental purification, carbon fixation and oxygen release, and water conservation were the main functions of urban forest services in Shanghai; These features play an important role in building a livable city and establishing "an ecological city".
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    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Determination of sulfonamides by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with microextraction
    LI Yi, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Ya-ting, HE Pin-gang, WANG Qing-jiang
    2019, 2019 (2):  156-163.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.017
    Abstract ( 124 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (950KB) ( 297 )   Save
    In this study, the development of an analytical method for the determination of chicken meat based on three-phase hollow fiber membrane microextraction ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (HF-LPME-UHPLC) was explored. A three-phase hollow fiber membrane microextraction system was developed to optimize the extraction conditions of HF-LPME:the extractant was n-octanol, the concentration of NaOH in the receiving phase was 200 mmol/L, the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the sample solution was 1.0 mmol/L, the concentration of Na2SO4 was 375 g/L, the extraction temperature was 30°, the stirring rate was 300 r/min, and the extraction time was 4 hours. Chicken meat samples were extracted and analyzed by UHPLC. Chromatographic analysis showed that the six sulfonamides reached baseline separation within six minutes. The linearity of the six sulfonamides in the mass range was good with a correlation coefficient of R2 > 0.998 9, the enrichment factors ranged from 188 to 950 times, and the detection limit was 0.03~0.1 ng/mL (S/N=3). The recoveries of sulfonamides flagged in chicken were 85.2%~95.6% with relative standard deviations of 3.13%~4.33% (n=5) at a concentration of 50 μg/kg. The studied method is highly sensitive and reproducible, and can be used for the detection of sulfonamides in chicken.
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    pH induced regulation of the morphology and properties of polybenzidine submicron rods
    WANG Lin, ZHANG Yan-hui, Arzugul MUSLIM, Abida ABDUNAZAR, LAN Hai-die
    2019, 2019 (2):  164-173.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.018
    Abstract ( 133 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (2576KB) ( 295 )   Save
    Polybenzidine was prepared using micelles of the triblock copolymer PnBA28-b-PS75-b-P2VP104 as a template. The effects of different pH values on the morphology and properties of polybenzidine (PBZ) were investigated by regulating the pH value of the micellar solution of the templates. The molecular weight distribution and structure of the triblock copolymer PnBA28-b-PS75-b-P2VP104 were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). The morphology and structure of the composites were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical capacitance of the composites was evaluated by chronopotentiometry. The effects of the pH value on the morphology, structure and properties of PBZ were explored in this study. The PBZ particles were submicron and micron rods with uniform distribution and a smooth surface. PBZ rods obtained at pH=5 had an average diameter that ranged from several tens to 200 nm. The uniformity of particle morphologies was found to decrease with an increase in pH value; A electrochemical performance test showed that the specific capacitance of PBZ reached 339.06 F/g at pH=5.
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    Geography
    Analysis of the supply and demand of senior living facilities based on a refined population grid: A case study of Shanghai Pudong New District
    ZHANG De-ying, ZHOU Yun-yun, LENG Xie, LI Long, ZHOU Jia-yuan, SHI Run-he
    2019, 2019 (2):  174-183.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.019
    Abstract ( 138 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (4063KB) ( 284 )   Save
    The contradiction between supply and demand of urban senior living facilities, as a kind of basic public service resource, is especially severe. A refined population grid obtained by state-of-the-art geographic information technology is required to discover the spatial contradiction. This paper took Pudong New District of Shanghai as the research area. The contradiction between the supply and demand of senior living facilities was revealed based on a refined age population grid at a 160-meter resolution, considering the location of facilities, the number of beds, and the health condition of the elderly. The results show that:The refined age population grid can fully illustrate the spatial attributes of the aged population and can be matched with the distribution of beds in senior living facilities spatially, depicting both the supply and demand of senior living facilities visually. The number of beds in senior living facilities meets the requirements of the Shanghai government, namely no less than 3% of the local registered elderly population. The contradiction between supply and demand of senior living facilities depends on location. A distinctive shortage of supply exists in the central area. Smaller facilities and a dense elderly population reflect an urgent demand. Meanwhile, the situation is the reverse in the suburbs, there are multiple overlapping services of facilities. Some facilities in the outer suburbs are too remote to fit the required demand based on the distribution of the elderly population.
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    Simulation analysis for remote sensing inversion of wavelength and water depth by the Fast Fourier Transform method
    SHEN Si-min, ZHU Shou-xian, KANG Yan-yan, ZHANG Wen-jing, CAO Guang-song
    2019, 2019 (2):  184-194,208.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.020
    Abstract ( 192 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (2538KB) ( 359 )   Save
    Using the difference in remote sensing reflectivity between wave crest and trough, wavelengths can be inversed by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method to derive the nearshore water depth. Remote sensing images with higher resolution are generally thought to induce less error in marine information inversion. In this study, remote sensing images were replaced by elevation data from ideal equations and numerical simulations to study the effect of data resolution on wavelength inversions and water depths. The results show that low-resolution data result in significant errors in the wavelengths and water depths. But variations in resolution make no difference in reversing the wavelengths and water depths as they reach certain levels. The sub-image size in the FFT method was also studied by simulation analysis. Larger sub-images generate less error in wavelength inversion if the wavelength doesn't vary spatially. On uneven topography, errors from wavelength and water depth inversions are small if the sub-image size is 4-8 times the wavelength and not more than the topography variation; however, when the sub-image is too large or too small, the errors will increase.
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    A study of the surficial suspended sediment concentration in response to typhoons in the Yangtze Estuary
    WANG Hao-bin, YANG Shi-lun, YANG Hai-fei
    2019, 2019 (2):  195-208.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.021
    Abstract ( 190 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (4298KB) ( 299 )   Save
    Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an important index to measure water quality, and its variations have major influences on seabed erosion/accretion, biological primary productivity, and restoration/loss of land resources. To study the influence of typhoons on the SSC in the Yangtze Estuary, we used surficial SSC data collected at six gauging stations-namely Xuliujing, Qinglonggang, Gaoqiao, Hengsha, Sheshan, and Luchaogang-over the period from 2010 to 2014, as well as continuous data on wind speeds and wave heights over long time scales. The results indicated that wave heights and wind speeds during typhoons were on average 2.2 times and 1.7 times higher, respectively, than those before a typhoon occurred. The mean surficial SSC at the gauging stations also doubled, increasing from 0.32 kg/m3 before typhoons to 0.69 kg/m3 during typhoons. The SSC measured during typhoons was found to be 4 times larger than values observed during calm weather. The typhoons' influences on SSC, moreover, varied across different sections of the Yangtze Estuary. Influences measured at the Sheshan and Luchaogang stations in the outer estuary were the most significant, and the SSC at the two stations increased by 167.1% and 143.7%, respectively. However, the sensitivity of SSC to the typhoons was relatively minor in the inner estuary, where winds' influences were accordingly minimal. Based on long time scale data, the increase of SSC was moderate for wind scales 1-4, and the increase of SSC became evident above a wind scale of 5. Changes in wind speeds and wave heights, resulting from typhoons, were the most dominant factors attributing to the varation in surficial SSC. During typhoon season, the change of surficial SSC caused by typhoons is much greater than the change of surficial SSC due to tidal and runoff effects. This study is beneficial to the protection of coastal engineering during typhoons and has important implications for the study of interdisciplinary fields.
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