By combining information extraction technology, data matching technology, and one-time manual processing, mathematical subjective questions can be transformed into tree-shaped multiple-choice questions. In this study, an automatic correction system for college mathematics assignments was developed by combining modern information and network technology; the system was subsequently trialed in the teaching of entry-level college mathematics courses. The proposed system solves bottlenecks related to automatic grading of subjective mathematics questions, including multiple-choice questions, fill-in-the-blank questions, judgment questions, quiz questions, calculation questions, and proof questions. The system can correct routine exercises for mathematics courses of primary schools, middle schools, and universities so as to achieve more efficient completion. The idea, furthermore, can be applied to various aspects of mathematics teaching, such as previews before class, classroom exercises, reviews after class, preparations for examinations, online examinations, etc. The electronic data collected in the process of automatic correction can subsequently be used for data analysis, teaching guidance, teaching research, and the construction of educational informatization.