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    Differences in biodiversity of diurnal and nocturnal waterbirds between natural and artificial wetlands: A case study from Caohai Nature Reserve and Yangwanqiao Reservoir, Guizhou Province
    LUO Zu-kui, LI Yang, LIU Wen, LI Xing-yuan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 120-130.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.013
    Abstract485)   HTML18)    PDF (663KB)(261)      
    In order to compare diurnal and nocturnal differences in waterbird biodiversity between Caohai Nature Reserve (natural wetland) and Yangwanqiao Reservoir (artificial wetland), we investigated waterbirds primarily using the line transect method during the wintering period from 2010 to 2016. The results from daylight hours indicated that avian abundance, richness, unique species, and the G-F index in Caohai Nature Reserve were all significantly higher than those observed in Yangwanqiao Reservoir, both in spring and winter. The results from nighttime indicated that avian abundance, richness, unique species, and G-F index in Caohai Nature Reserve were all significantly higher than those observed in Yangwanqiao Reservoir in winter. However, there were not significant differences in avian abundance, richness, and unique species observed between the two wetlands in spring. Birds with both different foraging ways and different body sizes varied significantly between the wetlands during daytime and nighttime. The size of mudflats, anthropological disturbances, cement banks, and emerging lake aquatic plants are the main factors that bring about differences in the waterbird community between the two wetlands. The status of habitat exploitation by waterbirds in a plot can be shown if avian distribution is observed both during daytime and nighttime.
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    Effect of egg yolk immunoglobulin on an experimental periodontitis model induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis
    WANG Fang, XU Xiao-chen, WU Wen-hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 131-137.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.014
    Abstract451)   HTML165)    PDF (1651KB)(299)      
    This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of egg yolk Immunoglobulin (IgY) on periodontitis in an established rat periodontitis model through the growth inhibition of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Experimental periodontitis was induced in mice by ligation of their second molar with medical thread and oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontitis rats were randomly divided into control, high-dose, and low-dose groups. Each group was comprised of eight rats. The gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were examined, and an X-ray image and histomorphological section were observed after 28 days. Compared with the control, the scores for PI, GI, and BOP and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly decreased in the IgY-treated groups. X-ray images showed that the tooth gap narrowed considerably. Pathological observation, furthermore, showed that periodontal fibers were neatly arranged, a small amount of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, the alveolar ridge was not absorbed, and alveolar bone increased. In conclusion, specific IgY can treat periodontitis induced by P.gingivalis in an established rat periodontitis model.
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    Variation in germination rates of moss spores using a cryopreservation technique: A case study of spores from six moss species
    SUN Li-wei, GAO Xue-di, XU Dan-er, Wang Shu-qin, YANG Zhuo-jun, WANG Jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 138-143,154.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.015
    Abstract459)   HTML11)    PDF (1006KB)(343)      
    To evaluate the applicability of cryopreservation for bryophyte spores, this study explored the effect of dehydration time and low temperature pretreatment; the study was used to identify the optimal conditions for six moss spores collected from different habitats. In addition, varying time periods (1 d, 15 d, 30 d, 90 d, 180 d) of spore cryopreservation were studied under the optimal pretreatment conditions identified. The results showed that:①After dehydration and low temperature pretreatment, the highest germination rates of spores from the six moss species were maintained (87.25%~96.21%). ②Compared to low temperature pretreatment, dehydration seems to be the key point of success for spore cryopreservation. The average spore germination rates ranged from 74.97% to 96.21% when treated with dehydration alone; in comparison, germination rates ranged from 21.73% to 90.94% when pretreated with low temperature alone. ③The average germination rates of spores from five moss species maintained their respective highest level (87.25%~96.21%) after cryopreservation for 1 d and then decreased with the prolongation of storage time; nevertheless, the germination rates still remained at relatively high levels (73.69%~86.60%).④ The average germination rates of spores from Funaria hygrometrica, Pohlia elongate, and Trematodon longicollis after storage for 30 d were 86.49%, 86.60%, and 84.98%, respectively. The germination rates of spores from Bryum blindii and B. caespiticium reached 73.69% and 84.17%, respectively, after storage for 180 d. The study indicates that the procedure for spore cryopreservation could be a simple, stable, and efficient method for storage of bryophyte species in conservation programs.
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    Non-orthogonal corrections to wave functions in perturbation theory
    SHEN Jia-yin, XUE Xun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 97-105,115.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.010
    Abstract392)   HTML13)    PDF (534KB)(398)      
    Time-independent perturbation theory is fairly accurate for the correction of non-degenerate energy levels, but its accuracy is not satisfactory for the correction of wave functions. After examining the derivation process of perturbation theory, it was found that the reason for the difference in precision may be related to the Orthogonality Assumption. The Orthogonality Assumption-an arbitrary-order modified wave function above zero order is orthogonal to the zero-order wave function-is a condition used in establishing perturbation theory. This paper explored the Orthogonality Assumption in detail and obtained a constraint condition on higher-order modified wave functions by using the normalized properties of the wave function; this condition implies that the accuracy at second-order and above is not suitable for use with the Orthogonality Assumption. It can be shown that without introducing the Orthogonality Assumption, the result of the energy level correction is exactly the same as that of the orthogonal situation, but the result of the modified wave function has a difference that cannot be ignored. This phenomenon can reasonably explain the previous accuracy problem. In this paper, the first three-order non-orthogonal corrective wave function of the one-dimensional charged harmonic oscillator system in the homogeneous electric field is taken as a specific example. By comparing the analytical solution of this system, it can be demonstarted that the non-orthogonal correction of the wave function has higher accuracy than the orthogonal correction. The paper briefly discusses generalization to the degenerate perturbation theory. Combined with recent progress on the Stark problem, it offers a possible method to check for correction of non-orthogonal perturbation.
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    Research on parton fragmentation functions of protons
    LI Pei-yu, RUAN Jian-hong
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 106-115.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.011
    Abstract400)   HTML12)    PDF (460KB)(331)      
    Parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions are fundamental to analyzing high energy experiments.The relationship between the proton valence quark distribution function q(x) and fragmentation function D(x) is analyzed. We find that the simple function D(x)=(1/6)q(x) for a valence quark is a good approximation to describe the available data. We set up a group of new parameterizations of fragmentation functions for protons. Differential cross section data were calculated and compared with recent research. We hope that our work can diminish uncertainties when fitting parton fragmentation functions of protons.
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    Complexity of black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics
    LI Li, DING Yu-chen, WANG Tao
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 116-121.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.012
    Abstract325)   HTML16)    PDF (293KB)(364)      
    Black holes usually have two horizons in nonlinear electrodynamics based on the Einstein gravity theory. Starting with the action and a spherical metric of general forms in this theory, we calculated the electric potential of the black hole as well as the action of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. The action turned out to be equal to the electric charge multiplied by the potential difference between the inner and outer horizons. Following the conjecture of complexity-action duality proposed recently by Susskind et al., the action can be interpreted as the computational complexity of the quantum states on the Anti-de Sitter boundary. In the special cases of the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the Born-Infeld black hole, our general results agree well with the results published in the literature.
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    A first principle investigation of organic-inorganic hybrid peroviskite (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4
    XIE Wei-jia, WANG Qian-qian, XIE Wen-hui
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 122-127.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.013
    Abstract377)   HTML20)    PDF (773KB)(554)      
    The structural and electronic properties of the two-dimensional (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 monolayer were investigated by employing first principle electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory. The optical absorption properties were studied by further analyzing chemical bonding and orbital characteristics. In addition, the influence of a vertical electric field on the electronic structure was also investigated. The results demonstrate that there is a significant external electric field-driven energy gap modulation effect, and that the semiconductor energy gap should be closed when the external electric field is larger than 0.45 V/Å.
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    An investigation of the invasive plants in Nanjing Botanical Garden Memorial Sun Yat-Sen
    YIN Qian, WANG Hong-jiang, LIU Xing-jian
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 128-134,163.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.014
    Abstract320)   HTML11)    PDF (1111KB)(357)      
    In order to understand the status of invasive plants in Nanjing Botanical Garden Memorial Sun Yat-Sen, the species, origin, life form, frequency and damage of alien invasive plants were surveyed through routing and sampling. The results showed that there were 65 invasive plants in the botanical garden area; Compositae constituted the largest proportion, accounting for 32.31% of the total, followed by graminaceous plants, accounting for 9.23% of the total. Among the invasive plants, 7 species have caused serious harm, 44 species were introduced from America (the largest point of origin), and most were annual herbs (46.15%). Wasteland and meadows under poor management are the most vulnerable habitat types. The invasion of some species has correlation with the introduction of new plants in the botanical garden.
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    Application of R language graphics in biological research
    LAN Yang, HE Xiu, ZHU Cheng-xu, ZHANG Yu-juan
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (1): 124-135,143.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.01.014
    Abstract631)   HTML35)    PDF (2336KB)(716)      
    The R programming language offers powerful statistical analysis, data processing, and visualization capabilities, which can run on Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems; the software allows users to show scientific research data through graphics by writing new code or adjusting existing code. However, it is difficult to learn R's programming code and use R packages, so R is not commonly favored by novices in the scientific research community. Based on the context of bioscience fields and data from published papers, public databases, and the National Bureau of Statistics, this study demonstrates how to plot high quality maps, heat maps, functional networks, Venn diagrams, and column charts using R, R Studio, and R-packages. To facilitate the use of R, we offer detailed scripts for biological researchers. After comparing R with other graphing software, this study provides good examples and discussions of how to reasonably and intuitively present results in biological research. We hope R will become the preferred plotting tool for elementary biological researchers in their learning and research activities.
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    Toxic effects of Cd2+ on the intestinal structure of Cypridopsis vidua (Ostracoda)
    CHEN Shi-mei, Li Dan-ni, Ding Qing-qing, YU Na
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2017, (4): 168-179.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2017.04.015
    Abstract350)   HTML8)    PDF (1416KB)(761)      
    Cypridopsis vidua is one of the few ostracods which can surrive from heavy pollution water. The toxic effects of Cd2+ on C. vidua and its intestinal ultrastructure were examined using a static renewal system. The LC50 values for cadmium in C. vidua were 5.00, 2.01, 0.46 and 0.14 mg/L at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure respectively, and the safe concentration of Cd2+ for long-term C. vidua survival was less than 0.014 mg/L. To observe the structure changes of its intestinal, four Cd2+ concentrations were set up, and two of them were below the safe concentration of Cd2+ (0.001 and 0.004 mg/L) and the other concentrations were above its safe concentration (0.016 and 0.064 mg/L). The experiment lasted for 7 days. When microstructure of C. vidua was observed, the gastrointestinal orga- nization was not damaged below the safe concentration; while the degree of injury showed a certain amount of time and dose effects in 24-72 hours above the safe concentration, and some structures among those surviving animals were slightly recovered in 7 days under same concentration. Sub-microscopic analysis of intestinal cells of C. vidua in two concentrations (0.004 and 0.064 mg/L) groups showed, different degrees of structure damage were found in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and organelles, which worsened with increasing Cd2+ con- centrations. Among these cellular structures, the damage to the membrane system of the cell was especially serious.
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