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    25 November 2009, Volume 2009 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Article
    Diversity, spatial pattern and dynamics of vegetation underurbanization in Shanghai (Ⅳ): Landscape-ecology effect harmony assessment of artificial plant communities (Chinese)
    LI Yan-yan;SHANG Kan-kan;DA Liang-jun;;WANG Juan;QI Yu-feng
    2009, 2009 (6):  1-11. 
    Abstract ( 3058 )   PDF (1016KB) ( 557 )   Save
    At present, urban green space construction should weight evenly between ecological-landscape effects and the establishment-management costs, and should take into consideration of saving requirement. It was necessary to establish the assessment system for plant community’s construction and improvement. A 4-leveled index assessment system was set based on indices which were selected according to Delphi expert consultation method, with all the weight calculated by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Then, the assessment system was applied to evaluate the green space plant communities in central Shanghai. The result showed that: due to low near-nature degree and a costly management, 51.4% of all the plant communities failed to meet the standard that ecological benefit should be in coordination with landscape benefit. To solve problems, new construction methods were introduced. In the construction of urban green space plant community, native species should be used to build the near natural plant community. The adoption of native species reflected the regional characteristics as well as the “land-mark” of the given region or city. What’s more, in order to reduce the management cost, the near natural management method was also recommended.
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    Diversity, spatial pattern and dynamics of vegetation under urbanization in Shanghai (Ⅴ):Natural succession pattern of understoryvegetation in Metasequoia glyptostrobodies plantationswithout management in urban areas (Chinese)
    WANG Juan;DA Liang-jun-;LI Yan-yan;SHANG Kan-kan
    2009, 2009 (6):  12-22. 
    Abstract ( 2800 )   PDF (2277KB) ( 691 )   Save
    The dynamics of species composition and diversity, population structure and height growth rate of understory vegetation in the Metasequoia glyptostrobodies plantations abandoned for 5, 8 and 12 years in the campus of East China Normal University has been studied in this paper. The results indicated as follows. (1) The species diversity decreased after abandoned. (2) Understory vegetation mainly distributed on the layer of 0-1.5 m and 1.5-3.0, in which the main species is Trachycarpus fortunei due to rich seeds sources. (3) The population structure pattern shifted from sporadic type to unimodal type, and its restoration has been changing into deflected succession. And (4) Trachycarpus fortunei and Ligustrum quihoui with the character of shade-tolerant have fast height-growth rate. It is suggested that the habitat,the seed resources and the seed dispersal pattern were the key limitation of understory vegetation restoration.
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    Cricket song structure analysis and the behavior observation of Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Grylloidea) (Chinese)
    HE Zhu-qing;LI Kai
    2009, 2009 (6):  23-31. 
    Abstract ( 3130 )   PDF (1036KB) ( 1825 )   Save
    The behaviors of Teleogryllus emma (Ohmachi and Matsumura, 1951) were reported and the characteristics of their songs were analyzed. The behaviors included feeding, cleaning, avoiding, mating and singing. The songs contained calling song (CS), courtship song (CtS) and rival song (RS). The results of time domain characteristics showed that the songs contained dominant tone and subordinate tone. both CS and CtS included two kinds of tones, while the subordinate tone of CtS is longer than the one of CS. RS contained only the dominant tone. The results of frequency domain characteristics analysis showed that the frequency of rival song was higher than the ones of CS and CtS.
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    Protective effect of carnosine against cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in mice (Chinese)
    FENG Zhen;WANG Yang;XUE Xiao-min;HUANG Jing;MA Xiao-jun;WU Zi-rong
    2009, 2009 (6):  32-37,6. 
    Abstract ( 2653 )   PDF (1605KB) ( 2087 )   Save
    This paper investigated the protective effect of carnosine on cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute nephrotoxicity in KM mice and the possible plausible mechanism. Forty female KM mice were classified into four groups by weight: control group, carnosine group, CDDP modal group and carnosine prevention group. Normal group and carnosine group were given saline and carnosine intraperitoneally, once daily for 10 days; CDDP modal group was given CDDP intraperitoneally, single dose at the 5th day; carnosine prevention group was given carnosine intraperitoneally, once dialy for 10 days and single dose of cisplatin at the 5th day. All animals were decapitated at the 10th day, blood serum was collected and analyzed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE), the kidney samples were stored for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the renal morphology changes by hematoxylin-eosin (HE)staining. As a result, the contents of serum BUN, CRE and kidney tissue MDA in the CDDP group increase significantly, while the contents of kidney tissue GSH and SOD decrease strikingly, severe morphology changes is clearly seen. The carnosine prevention group can effectively improve this phenomenon. In conclusion, carnosine can attenuate CDDP-induced acute nephrotoxicity, and the mechanism may be closely involved in antioxidation and scavenging of free radicals.
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    Cloning and evolutionary analysis of UCP2 in bats (Chinese)
    ZUO Xue-guo;HE Ling-jiang;ZHANG Jun-peng;YUAN Li-hong
    2009, 2009 (6):  38-46,1. 
    Abstract ( 2540 )   PDF (2726KB) ( 1606 )   Save
    A pair of degenerated primers was designed based on the conserved region of UCP2 among human, mouse, horse and dog. Then, cDNA fragments encoding the complete coding domain sequence (CDS) of UCP2 were amplified from three bat species (orders), Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Rhinolophidae), Miniopterus fuliginosus (Miniopteridae) and Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae). The CDS of UCP2 from three different bat species contain 930 bp encoding 309 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of bat UCP2 consist three signature motifs of mitochondrial transporter protein and UCP-specific sequences. Our results showed that UCP2 gene of bats and other mammals shared high homology (90.6% to 97.0%). Evolutionary analysis indicated that UCP2 gene is highly conserved and has undergone strong purifying selected pressure during the evolution of mammals (ω=0.063). In addition, by comparing the difference of selected pressure on UCP2 between bats and other mammals, non-hibernating bats and hibernating bats, no significant difference was identified (P>0.05). Taken together, all these data proved that UCP2 has an effect on the regulation of energy metabolism of mammal evolution. The mechanism of metabolic regulation of UCP2, however, remains unclear and further investigation is needed to clarify this process.
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    Dietary vitamin B6 requirement of junvenile Chinesemitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese)
    WANG Yue;SUN Xin-jin;CHEN Li-qiao;LI Er-chao;YE Jin-yun
    2009, 2009 (6):  47-55. 
    Abstract ( 2949 )   PDF (1239KB) ( 2290 )   Save
    The basal diet was formulated using vitamin B6-free casein as the protein source. Eight graded levels (0, 10, 30, 60,100,150,200 and 400 mg vitamin B6 per kg diet) of vitamin B6 were added to the basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of E.sinensis (2.12±0.56) g for 10 weeks. Results showed that there were no significant differences in survival, weight gain, and the content of water and ash among crabs fed different diets. But protein utilization ratio (PUR) increased significantly with the increase of dietary vitamin B6. The highest PUR was found in crabs fed diet with 100 mg vitamin B6 per kg diet. Patterns of the content of crude protein and crude fat were similar to that of PUR. Crabs fed 100 mg vitamin B6/kg diet had a significantly higher protein and fat content than that fed 0 and 400 mg vitamin B6 per kg diet. Besides, different dietary vitamin B6 content also had significant effect on the activities of hepatopancreas glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT) ,while no significant difference was observed in glutamate aspartate transaminase (AST). But they both increased with the increase of dietary vitamin B6. The maximum hepatopancreas ALT activitiy was observed in crab fed the 100 mg vitamin B6 per kg diet, and was significantly higher than all the other, except 30 mg vitamin B6 per kg diet groups.
    Combined, results in this study indicated that through stimulating the activity of transaminase, vitamin B6 could assist the anabolism of protein, and then improved the accumulation of body protein and fat in crabs. Broken-line regression analysis showed that the optimum dietary pyridoxine requirement for maximum PUR and hepatopancreas ALT activity of E. sinensis under these experimental conditions was 81.675-85.74 mg pyridoxine per kg diet.
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    Study on the phosphorus loss in soil with rice-wheat rotation system (Chinese)
    YANG Bei-bei;LIU Min;ZHANG Li-jia;LU Min
    2009, 2009 (6):  56-63. 
    Abstract ( 2799 )   PDF (1205KB) ( 1725 )   Save
    1. Geographic Science Base, East China Normal University, Shanghai200241, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education,Department of Geography, East China Normal University, Shanghai200062, China
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    Particle size distribution of heavy metals in urbansurface dusts in Shanghai (Chinese)
    WANG Li-li;LIU Min;OU Dong-ni;CHANG Jing;XU Shi-yuan
    2009, 2009 (6):  64-70,1. 
    Abstract ( 3109 )   PDF (2374KB) ( 1910 )   Save
    This study was undertaken to assess the impact of particle size distribution on the heavy metal concentrations and chemical fractions in urban surface dusts in Shanghai. The result showed that there was 47.4% of surface dusts under 75 μm, higher than other fractions. It showed obvious difference in the spatial distribution of heavy metals in urban surface dusts, Zn had the highest concentration in the commercial district, while Cr in the industrial district and Pb in the residential district. Heavy metals were mainly existed in the smaller particle size fractions and the 75 μm part contained the highest concentration. A five-step sequential extraction of urban surface dusts showed that Zn occurred predominantly in the carbonate bound fraction and reducible fraction, while Cr was the highest in the residual fraction and Pb in the reducible fraction. Considering the exchangeable and carbonate fractions, the comparative mobility of the metals in urban surface dusts probably decreased in the following order: Zn> Pb> Cr.
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    Environmental flow calculation and assessmentin plain river network areas (Chinese)
    QIN Yong-liang;YUAN Wen
    2009, 2009 (6):  71-78. 
    Abstract ( 2879 )   PDF (782KB) ( 1925 )   Save
    This paper analyzed the characteristics of environmental flow in plain river network areas. By using dynamic weight,a calculation method under different water quality and quantity combinations was designed. The environmental flow data of Songpu Bridge on Huangpu River were used to assess the environmental flow situation in Shanghai area. This research might provide a new way to understand, describe and calculate environmental flow guided by multifunction of river management.
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    Assessment and restoration schemes of ecology and landscape ofquarries on Jiulong Mountain in Shandong province (Chinese)
    JI Xia-wei;CAI Yong-li;ZUO Jun-jie;LUO Kun
    2009, 2009 (6):  79-88. 
    Abstract ( 2777 )   PDF (1157KB) ( 1668 )   Save
    The abandoned quarries are a kind of highly degraded ecosystem and cause visual pollution. Based on field investigation and GIS, combining improved Visual Resource Management (VRM) with Landscape Pollution Index (LPI), 40 abandoned quarries in the 47.2 km2 planning area of Jiulong Mountain Chinese Cultural Symbolic City were assessed, then 7 different restoration schemes were put forward, which are short-term ecological revegetation, short-term landscape re-building, short-term ecological revegetation/landscape re-building, medium-term ecological revegetation, medium-term landscape re-building, long-term ecological revegetation and long-term landscape re-building. The assessment of abandoned quarries provides objective reference for choosing ecological revegetation or landscape re-building.
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    Vegetation coverage landscape pattern of Chongming in thebackground of fast urbanization (Chinese)
    LI Hong-;LI De-zhi-;SONG Yun-;ZHOU Yan-;KE Shi-zhen-;WANG Chun-ye-;SUN Yu-bing-;LI Li-ke-;ZHAO Lu-qing-
    2009, 2009 (6):  89-100. 
    Abstract ( 3093 )   PDF (4735KB) ( 2268 )   Save
    By studying the vegetation coverage and it’s pattern during 17 years by means of translation of TM/ETM+ remote sensing images and analysis on the tempo-spatial characteristics of the hierarchical structure of the vegetation coverage, the process of disturbance of urbanization on the natural landscape and the changes in environmental quality were reproduced. The results showed that from 1989 to 2006, along with the rapid development of economy, the vegetation system in Chongming county experienced a process from serious damage to gradual restoration. From 1989 to 2001, the vegetation in both town and farm areas were destroyed seriously. From 2001 to 2006, this tend still existed in the town area, but in the farm area, the vegetation was increased, and the hierarchical structure of the vegetation coverage was improved, which positively contributed to the restoration of the vegetation system in Chongming county.
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    Soil physical and chemical properties along altitudes ofWestern Tianmushan, Zhejiang (Chinese)
    YANG Shu-zhen;MA Yuan;JIANG Ping;JIAO Jing;ZHU Yun-feng;ZHAO Ming-shui;CHEN Xiao-yong
    2009, 2009 (6):  101-107. 
    Abstract ( 3279 )   PDF (1202KB) ( 2273 )   Save
    In recent years, ancient trees of Cryptomeria japonica var sinensis in Western Tianmushan are declining due to attacks by diseases and insect pests, which were believed to be triggered by acid deposition. The physical and chemical features of soils to provide references for this opinion was analyzed. In this study, soil samples were collected along altitude from 350 m to 1 350 m, with the interval of 200 m. At each sampling site, soil samples were collected from three layers. Soil texture, humidity, bulk density, pH value, organic matter content, contents of total nitrogen and total phosphor were analyzed. Generally, percentage of coarse particles, soil humidity and organic matter content increased with increasing altitude. Soil bulk density and pH value had a declining trend with the increase in altitude. Total nitrogen and phosphor contents had no constant trend along altitude. Compared to the data of 1986 and 1995 years, significant decrease in pH value was observed, indicating a trend of acidification. The observed soil acidification provides evidence for the rapid decline in ancient trees of Cryptomeria japonica var. sinensis triggered by acid deposition.
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    Analysis of structure changes of microbial community inphytoremediation tank at different growthperiods of Pontederia cordata L (Chinese)
    ZHANG Yong;HUANG Min-sheng;RUAN Yu-ying;ZHAO Feng
    2009, 2009 (6):  108-118. 
    Abstract ( 3125 )   PDF (3075KB) ( 2184 )   Save
    The effects and mechanisms of pioneer plant on the purification of malodorous river water in phytoremediation tank were evaluated. According to the relationship between the major pollutants removal effect and the microbial community structure, which was investigated by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting, it was found that Pontederia cordata L had obvious effect on the pollutant removal, the removal efficiencies of CODCr, NH3-N and TP being 19.8%~69.4%, 18.2%~68% and 23.9%~77.2% higher than those of control group. Meanwhile, the three tanks planted with Pontederia cordata L had more abundant microbial species than those without hydrophytes. It also remarkably indicated that the diversity of the predominant bacteria at tillering stage was much greater than that at other stages and the combination of plant and compounding medium was the best technologic model in three different types.
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    Investigating the evolution of urban river system of downtownShanghai in the last century (Chinese)
    YUN Ye;CHENG Wei;WU Jian-ping;
    2009, 2009 (6):  119-127. 
    Abstract ( 3035 )   PDF (3189KB) ( 2403 )   Save
    Using the topographic data of 1918 and 6 remote sensing images in different times from 1965 to 2006, 7 urban river distribution maps of downtown Shanghai were derived in this research. The spatio-temporal evolution of urban river system and its impacts on the environment were analyzed based on GIS and spatial analysis techniques. The main results include: (1) From 1918 to 2006, the quantity of rivers in downtown Shanghai has decreases from 1 018 to 184, correspondingly the areas of them have shrunk from 37.68 km2 to 15.26 km2. (2) The meander-cutoff and obstruction of river are two major manners of the river system reduction. And the trend of urban river system diminishment is from the center to the surrounding. (3) The primary driven force of urban river system evolution is human activity, such as constructions of buildings and roads, and cropland degradations. (4) The evolution of urban river system disrupts the system’s water storage capacity, and weakens its urban heat island effect. Based on the analysis, several suggestions were proposed for the future planning.
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    Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic property of compound[Cu(NPG)2(H2O)2]·CH3CH2OH (Chinese)
    XU Han;ZHOU Quan;LIU Bin;LI Yi-zhi;BAI Jun-feng
    2009, 2009 (6):  128-133. 
    Abstract ( 2893 )   PDF (1443KB) ( 1612 )   Save
    A coordination polymer was synthesized by solution method. Its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and further characterized by elemental, IR spectra,TG and magnetic property analysis. The title compound crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1, with a=0.476 74(12) nm,b=0.113 19(3) nm,c=0.116 14(3) nm,α=106.468(4)°,β =100.114(5)°,γ =94.358(5)°,V=0.586 4(3) nm3,Z=1. Cu(II) ions are linked by O-C-O unit to form one-dimensional chain, the 1D chains are connected by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and resulting in 2D structure. Hydrogen bonds play significant role in stabilization of the structure,weak ferromagnetic interactions are observed in the compound.
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    Cloning and expression pattern analysis of a cDNA of pkc-2gene in Caenorhabditis elegans (Chinese, Notes)
    QIAN Yu;Laurent SGALAT
    2009, 2009 (6):  134-140. 
    Abstract ( 2771 )   PDF (4906KB) ( 1357 )   Save
    Protein kinase C regulates the progressive muscle degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to investigate the function of PKC involved in muscle degeneration, this paper cloned a cDNA isoform of pkc-2 gene of C.elegans and constructed the recombinant plasmids pPD118.20-pKG63 containing the isoform. The new isoform was then further studied for gene expression pattern. Immunocytochemistry experiment showed that this cDNA isoform expressed in body-wall muscle cells and located near the dense body.
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