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    25 November 2007, Volume 2007 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Article
    Neural Mechanism of Binaural Auditory Information Integration in the Brain(Chinese)
    ZHANG Ji-ping;SUN Xin-de
    2007, 2007 (6):  1-11,3. 
    Abstract ( 3127 )   PDF (1328KB) ( 479 )   Save
    In natural environments,human and animals percept auditory signal or sound environment by analyzing and integrating binaural sound information through the auditory system and then make their decisions. The present paper reviewed the research progress regarding the neural mechanism of binaural information integration in the brain within the last 60 years. The anatomical basis of binaural information processing,the classification and response properties of binaural neurons,and the topographic distribution of binaural neurons in the central auditory system were reviewed. Research progress and several models regarding the mechanism of binaural information processing,including the neural coding for binaural time difference and binaural level difference in the superior olive complex,inferior colliculus and auditory cortex were discussed.Future study directions on the binaural processing mechanism were also suggested.
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    Research on Nitrogen Nonpoint Source Pollution Model in Farmland of Shanghai Suburbs(Chinese)
    ZHENG Jian-yu;ZHOU Nai-sheng
    2007, 2007 (6):  12-19. 
    Abstract ( 3451 )   PDF (660KB) ( 307 )   Save

    According to the characters of runoff and fertilization, the runoff process in the farmland was divided into paddy field fertilization period, paddy field growth period and dry land period. Based on the fieldwork in Shanghai area, the regress model of nonpoint source pollution in these three types of farming period were developed. There is difference between the simulated and actual precipitations situations. Nitrogen concentration during the simulated precipitations varied between 28 mg•L-1 and 45 mg•L-1, with the precipitation density at 2 mm•min-1, and the nitrogen concentration during the actual precipitation varied between 0.2 mg•L-1 and 4.0 mg•L-1, with the precipitation density varing between 0.037 6 mm•min-1 and 0.075 1 mm•min-1. Based on the long-term precipitation data and nitrogen loss in the groundwater, by the modified SCS method the annual nitrogen load in the farmland was calculated, and the value is 26.5 kg•ha-1.

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    Study on Regulation of Land Use Sustainability in Shanghai Based on Ecological Footprint Model(Chinese)
    DAI Xiao-yan;XU Jian-hua;DONG Shan;MA Jun-jie;WANG Zhi-hai
    2007, 2007 (6):  20-28. 
    Abstract ( 3094 )   PDF (918KB) ( 394 )   Save
    The ecological footprint model was applied to analyze the variation of ecological footprint in Shanghai from 1996 to 2005. Based on these, the ecological footprint and land scale were predicted in 2010 and 2020 through the grey forecast model, and land use regulation indeces and optimal arrangement favorable to ecological environment in Shanghai were obtained. These results are helpful to establish general land use planning scientifically in order to implement the regulation of land use sustainability, and to promote the development of economy, population, resource, environment and land use in a harmonious way.
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    Design and Implement of the Management Information System of Retail Stores Based on GIS for Shanghai City(Chinese)
    WANG Yuan-fei;LIU Li-ming;YANG Qin-zhi;PU Zu-jian
    2007, 2007 (6):  29-36. 
    Abstract ( 3679 )   PDF (740KB) ( 369 )   Save
    This paper showed an implemented project of Shanghai Management Information System for Retail Stores based on GIS .In the process of the system development,several key technologies were issued and solved,such as retail store data model, retail store geocoding,readable user interface and commercial maps.Various functions,including data management,updating and maintenance,query and statistics,analysis and commercial mapping,were programmed.All these offered information tools for management and planning of urban retail stores.
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    Comparison of Two Analysis Methods of Fugitive Road Dust Size in Shanghai City(Chinese)
    HUANG Yan-min;SHU Jiong;GU Ying
    2007, 2007 (6):  37-43. 
    Abstract ( 3212 )   PDF (430KB) ( 453 )   Save
    This paper reported the comparison analysis between laser method and aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer method of particle size measurement for dust samples of 54 roads form Shanghai city center.Regression relations were established between the results by two methods.The difference of results was explained by their testing principles,which imply more informations for further work.
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    Experimental Study on Physical Controls of an Exotic Plant Spartina alterniflora in Shanghai(Chinese)
    LI He-peng;ZHANG Li-quan
    2007, 2007 (6):  44-55. 
    Abstract ( 3276 )   PDF (1167KB) ( 618 )   Save

    Since introduced into the Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve in 1995,Spartina alterniflora has rapidly expanded and seriously threatened the biodiversity there.During 2005 and 2006, a field experiment of physical controls, including digging tillage, breaking rhizome, cutting, and biological substitute,on S.alterniflora was conducted to search effective measures for controlling this invasive plant.The growth parameters of density, coverage and aboveground biomass were used to evaluate the efficiency of different treatments.The results showed that for the digging tillage treatments, the density, coverage and aboveground biomass were significantly lower than that of the control and there were no significant difference among the different depth treatments.In the end of the second growing season, there were no significant differences among the treatments and the control.The treatments of breaking rhizome significantly inhibited the growth of S.alterniflora in the first growing season and inhibition increased with the depth of treatments.However, the inhibition of growth disappeared after two growing seasons and there were no significant differences among the treatments and the control.The treatments of cutting significantly inhibited the growth of S.alterniflora in the first growing season.In the end of the second growing season, the growth of S.alterniflora recovered in some extent, only the treatments of JUN, JUL, AUG and SEP significantly inhibited its growth.In the biological substitute treatment, the transplanted Phragmites australis kept a relatively high survival in the first growing season.The survival rate maintained at the level of 54.2% and both the plant height and fruiting increased considerably in the second growing season.The results demonstrated that it is necessary to take into account of frequency, intensity and season of these measures to achieve a high efficiency for controlling the invasion of S.alterniflora.

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    Structural Reexamination and Ab-initio Calculation on the Silver(I) Perchlorate-Benzene Complex(Chinese)
    MA Hui;DONG Ling-ling;LIU Ying;WU Liang-ping
    2007, 2007 (6):  56-61,8. 
    Abstract ( 3049 )   PDF (549KB) ( 404 )   Save
    The silver(I) perchlorate-benzene complex,AgClO4•C6H6,was synthesized and structurally reexamined by X-ray crystallography at low temperature.The compound crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm(#63), with unit cell dimensions of a=8.154 0(6)×10-10 m, b=7.918(4)×10-10 m, c=11.717(1)×10-10 m,V=756.4(4)×10-30 m3,Z=4.The study revealed details of the structure not observed by previous authors in respect of the distortions of the benzene molecule and the coordination environment of the metal ion.The data are consistent with the results obtained from ab-initio calculation of the complex.
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    Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand Values by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Nano ZnO Film on Quartz(Chinese)
    LU Hua;QU Yun-he;ZHOU Tian-shu;ZHENG Lei;SHI Guo-yue
    2007, 2007 (6):  62-68,9. 
    Abstract ( 2964 )   PDF (618KB) ( 329 )   Save
    A COD measurement by photocatalytic oxidation using nano ZnO film was investigated.K2Cr2O7 was added into the solution to enhance the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation,and simultaneously K2Cr2O7 was reduced to Cr(Ⅲ) by photogenerated electrons which were adsorbed on the surface of ZnO.The measuring principle was based on direct determination of Cr(Ⅲ) concentration which was proportional to the COD value.Under the optimized experiment condition,the application range was 50~1 000 mg/L,and the detection limit was 20 mg/L.The immobilization of photocatalyst on the supports could not only solve the problem of low recovery of the catalyst and hard separation from the solution,but also overcome its shortcoming of poor stability.Applying this method to the determination of real samples,it was found to be rapid and environmentally friendly.Additionally,the method proposed above for determination of COD was in excellent correspondence with values obtained by using the conventional method.
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    Characteristics of Radial Oxygen Loss from Root of Wetland Plants(Chinese)
    DENG Hong;YE Zhi-hong;HUANG Ming-hong
    2007, 2007 (6):  69-76. 
    Abstract ( 4176 )   PDF (744KB) ( 523 )   Save
    Characteristics of radial oxygen loss (ROL) from root of 10 wetland plants was studied in this paper.Root ROL varied with the distance from root tips,as well as with species.Spatial pattern of ROL was identified to show 3 types according to the trends of ROL rate along adventitious roots.Type Ⅰ showed a relatively high rate of ROL along the whole root,declining gradually from root apex to root basal part.Type Ⅱ was indicated by significantly high ROL in root apex but decreased greatly towards root base.As for Type Ⅲ,ROL was similar but very low along the whole root.In nutrient solutions,deoxygenation caused a series of changes in root ana-tomy of some species,such as increased root diameter,root porosity and more developed aerenchyma,inducing a ROL barrier in root basal part and the consequent change of ROL profile.
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    Dynamic and Driving Forces of Landscape Pattern of Estuarine Wetland in the Min River(Chinese)
    ZHOU Liang-jin;YOU Wen-hui
    2007, 2007 (6):  77-87. 
    Abstract ( 3226 )   PDF (994KB) ( 422 )   Save
    Along the Min River, there are more than five areas with relatively large area and well habitant and breeding for birds.Human-induced land use and land cover changes in wetland areas,such as urban construction and flood-proof and transportation projects conversing wetlands into non-wetlands, has significant impacts on landscape pattern of wetlands.This paper applied multiple spatial data and information from remote sensing and maps, as well as geographic information system modeling and landscape ecological approaches to reveal the changes of landscape of wetland in the study area from 1986 to 2003.The results showed: (1) The regional wetland landscape types were characterized into 12 types,including natural wetland, man-made wetland and non-wetland.The landscape diversity index and Shannon’s Evenness index increased in the past 17 years, while the numbers of patches increased, the areas of the nature wetland decreased and that of man-made wetland and non-wetland increased.The fragmentation of landscape of wetland in the study area enhanced steadily due to increasing mankind activities.(2) On respect of individual patches index, wetlands’ patches mean area declined 28.99 percents from 1986 to 2003 and density of patches increased 40.87 percents on the same period, and fractal dimension and shape index which reflected the shape of patches had increased in temporal scales, for the shape of patches more complex under the mankind disturbance.(3) The spatial variation of wetland landscape along the river was affected by a suite of natural and anthropogenic factors, such as hydrological and climate factors and various human activities.Urban construction and flood-proof projects were key factors to natural wetland conversation to non-wetland.Rapid population growth and economic development have significantly impact the spatial pattern of the landscape of study areas.
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    Forming Characteristics of Gap in an Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Tiantong National Forest Park,Zhejiang Province,Eastern China(Chinese)
    JIANG Liang-cai;LIU Li-zheng;WANG Xi-hua
    2007, 2007 (6):  88-96. 
    Abstract ( 3314 )   PDF (830KB) ( 556 )   Save
    Gap is a common disturbance regime in forest ecosystem.This paper studied their forming characteristics in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province.The results showed: the linear gap density in the forest is 17.08 gaps/km, the expanded gaps occupy 15.42%, and canopy gaps occupy 5.46%.The yearly gap forming frequency is 0.287% and the forming rotation is about 348.4 a.The gap size is smaller than other regions, its expanded gaps vary from 39.3 m2 to 251.2 m2 and the average size is 106.32 m2.Canopy gaps vary from 11.8 m2 to 131.9 m2 and the average size is 37.68 m2.Standing litter, wind damage and selective lumber are main manners of gaps formation, most of gap-makers are Schima superba, Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis fargesii, Lithocarpus glaber, Lithocarpus harlandii,and so on.They are all dominant species in tree layer in this region.The types of gap-makers are different at different landforms.The average gap-maker number in each gap is 1.76, the main distribution range of Base Diameter(BD)of gap-makers is from 20 cm to 40 cm,and their average BD is 28.93 cm.
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    Effects of Artificial Diets on Female Propylea japonica’s Feeding and Body Composition(Chinese)
    LI Kai;ZHANG Tian-shu;ZHANG Li-li;WANG Bin;WANG Qun
    2007, 2007 (6):  97-105. 
    Abstract ( 3302 )   PDF (815KB) ( 467 )   Save
    This paper studied the effects of artificial diets on the female Propylea japonica’s feeding and body composition.And the results indicated that the feeding amount of ladybird increased sharply at the initial days after eclosion, and then decreased gradually.The feeding amount and the consumption index (CI) of the beetles fed on cotton aphid were three to four times higher than that of the beetles fed with artificial diets.The feeding amount of the beetles fed with diet containing sucrose was significantly higher than that of the beetles fed with diets without sucrose, which proved that the sucrose had the function of increasing food intake for Propylea japonica; As to the relative growth rate(RGR) and approximate digestibility(AD) , there existed significant difference between the control and the beetles fed with artificial diets, due to the unbalance of the nutrition or existing some antinutritional facts in the artificial diets probably.While the Efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) in the control were significantly higher than that in beetles fed with artificial diets, which was probably the strategy of the insects whose food intake was low to survive.Furthermore, the results indicated that the dietary sucrose could improve AD, ECI and ECD of the artificial diets.As to the effects of the artificial diets on the body composition, the results showed that contents of moisture, crude protein and crude fat of female Propylea japonica were 58.77%,15.93% and 11.30%,respectively.And the analysis of the female fatty acids indicated that unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) was the major contents.In monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the highest contents were oleic acid (1C18 n-9) and linoleic acid (2C18 n-6) respectively.The dietary sucrose could increase the content of crude protein in Propylea japonica,and the dietary olive oil could increase the content of crude fat significantly.The USFA content (72.70%) of the beetles fed with artificial diets was higher than that of control (58.00%).Supplementing 0.5% olive oil in diet could remarkably increase the content of USFA,specially of oleic acid (1C18 n-9), due to the rich oleic acid content in olive oil.
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    Ciliature Microtubule Differentiation of Euplotes encysticus in Different Physiological Conditions(Chinese)
    NIU Yan-ning;WU Yue-hua;NI Bing;GU Fu-kang
    2007, 2007 (6):  106-111. 
    Abstract ( 3283 )   PDF (610KB) ( 384 )   Save
    The ciliature microtubules of Euplotes encysticus and their structural differentiation during asexual division, encystment and excystment were investigated by using FLUTAX staining and fluorescence microscopic techniques.(1) During morphogenesis, the close gathered kinetosomes of FVT-cirri become separated from each other, disintegrate and disappear gradually.The base bodies of dorsal cilia expand gradually and in the mean time the peripheral microtubules in basal bodies apart gradually from each other forming a plum blossom-like arrangement.Afterwards, the bands of granular cilia-anlagen occur in the corresponding cortical generating regions.(2) During encystment, AZM, PM, FVT-cirri and other organelles undergo a partial dedifferentiation process, i.e.with the condense of cell body, ciliatures aggregate each other at the ventral part of the spherical cyst cell body and the dorsal cilia arrange at the dorsal part with original pattern.(3) During excystment, the cell body swells as water is absorbed into the cell and becomes amoeba-like in shape.During this developmental stage, although weak fluorescence could be detected all over the cell, the fluorescence image of microtubules was never observed.The differentiated cell gets out of the cyst through a dorsal small pore of cyst wall and becomes a morphologically normal ciliate.Some tracks of dorsal cilia could be found at the dorsal part of the cyst wall left over during excystment.
    Based on the above results, following conclusions were suggested: during morphogenesis, the microtubules of ciliatures may have some contributions to the construction of new structures of the ciliate; during excystment, the microtubular structures have a further differentiating process, accompanying the differentiation of ameba-like shaped cell body.After these developmental events, all microtubules may go through a futher step of assembling and morphogenesis.
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    Difference of Killing Effects of Dual-targeting Oncolytic Adenovirus on Tumor and Normal Cells(Chinese)
    ZHANG Wei;ZHANG Hong-feng
    2007, 2007 (6):  112-119. 
    Abstract ( 2979 )   PDF (730KB) ( 478 )   Save
    To reduce the killing effect of oncolytic adenovirus on normal cells and get safe clinical application, oncolytic adenovirus AdCN103, a novel dual-targeting tumor specific proliferating virus,was constructed by replacing the wild type adenovirus E1A promoter with the promoter of human telomerase reverse transonptase (hTERT) and mutant E1A lacking CR2 region.The single-controlled recombinant adenovirus was generated with either 24 bp deleted E1A (AdCN101) or wild-type of E1A driven by hTERT promoter (AdCN102).〖JP〗Killing effects of AdCN103 on several different tumor cells and normal cells were detected by crystal violet dye method and MTT assay.The virus replicating ability was assessed by virus progeny assay.The result shows that AdCN103 can selectively replicate in tumor cells and it has an overt cytopathic effect.Meanwhile, there is a dramatic reduction of cytotoxicity in normal cells infected with AdCN103 compared with its corresponding control vectors.Such protocol may have important applications for cancer gene therapies in the future.
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    Alternative Splicing of Rh Messenger RNA Isoforms(Chinese)
    ZHANG Yu-xian;LI Qin;ZHU Zi-yan
    2007, 2007 (6):  120-124. 
    Abstract ( 3070 )   PDF (466KB) ( 434 )   Save
    This study aimed at analyzing transcription of RHD gene in erythroid cells and non-erythroid cells,and further comparing transcription of RHD gene in individuals with different expression levels of D phenotype.The technique of reverse transcriptase polymorphism chain reaction(RT-PCR) and cDNA sequencing was used to detect RhD mRNA of HL-60,K562,Jurkat,THP-1,HECF and white blood cells from ten unrelated individuals with different Rh phenotypes(2 CCDEe,2 CCDee,2 ccDee,2 CcDee,ccDEe and CcDEe)and reticulocyte from additional ten unrelated individuals with different Rh phenotypes(3 CcDEe,2 CCDEe,2 CCDee,2 CcDee and 1 CCDuee).Results showed except erythroid cells, RhD mRNA was absent in HL-60,Jurkat,THP-1,HECF and nuclear cells of peripheral blood.K562 had a normal RHD transcript.RhD cDNA of reticulocyte from different Rh phenotypes was complex and some absent exon 7, exon 9,exon 7~9,or exon 4~9,but all with normal RHD transcript.Conclusion Multiple RHD transcript is produced by alternative splicing.All these Rh messenger RNA isoforms existing in erythroid cells,such as reticulocyte and K562,absent in white blood cells.
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    Epiphyllous Liverworts of the Maoershan Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China(Chinese)
    NAN Zi;ZHU Rui-liang
    2007, 2007 (6):  125-130. 
    Abstract ( 2899 )   PDF (491KB) ( 405 )   Save
    The epiphyllous liverworts of the Maoershan Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province were reported for the first time through field surveying and data refereeing.There are 19 species of epiphyllous liverworts belonging to eight genera of three families in Maoershan Nature Reserve, including 16 species new to the area investigated, and 15 species belonging to the typical epiphyllous liverworts.Colura tenuicornis and Drepanolejeunea foliicola are new to the liverwort flora of Guangxi.The epiphyllous Colura is newly reported for Guangxi.The number of East Asian species accounts for 36.84% of the total number of the epiphyllous liverworts in Maoershan Nature Reserve.Such a result reveals that the epiphyllous flora of Maoershan is closely related to the East Asian flora of the epiphyllous liverworts.
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    New Records of Mosses from Zhejiang Province(Chinese)
    LIU Yan;CAO Tong
    2007, 2007 (6):  131-134. 
    Abstract ( 3071 )   PDF (343KB) ( 521 )   Save
    Based on the investigation and specimen identification of bryophytes from urban areas of Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province, five new records were reported.Leskeella pusilla (Mitt.) Nog.is recorded for the first time from China.Syntrichia sinensis (C.Müll.) Ochyra, Physcomitrium coorgense Broth, Lindbergia japonica Card.and Haplocladium strictulum (Card.) Reim.are new to Zhejiang province.In addition, Syntrichia is also a new genus to Zhejiang.The major taxonomic characters, habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.The species of Leskeella pusilla and Lindbergia japonica are illustrated.
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    (Chinese)
    2007, 2007 (6):  135-136. 
    Abstract ( 2360 )   PDF (149KB) ( 269 )   Save
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