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    25 March 2013, Volume 2013 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Article
    Effects of turbulence on the behavior of endogenous nitrogen in malodorous river
    ZHANG Yi-fan, CHEN Yu-xia, HE Yan, HUANG Min-sheng
    2013, 2013 (2):  1-10. 
    Abstract ( 2647 )   PDF (2147KB) ( 2205 )   Save
    A simulation system was designed for river sediment resuspension. Four different aeration turbulent intensity working conditions and one static control were set up. Flow velocities under different turbulent intensities and their dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured. The Reynolds number (Re) of each condition was calculated. The migration and transformation behaviors of four nitrogen forms (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen in overlying water and pore water from fluid mud layer and black layer) were analyzed. The results showed that DO concentration distributed with various aeration turbulent intensities, which lead different transformation pathways of occurrence of endogenous nitrogen .Under the condition of 28.8~32.0 cm/s flow velocities and 1 810~2 113 the Reynolds numbers, ammonia and total nitrogen in overlying water exhibited better removal efficiency, indicating that turbulent intensity played a significant role in the transformation process of endogenous ammonia and total nitrogen. Compared with static control regime, areation made the fluid mud layer have a higher nitrite and nitrate concentration, it may diffuse to overlying water and black layer. The diffusion nitrite and nitrate in black layer should adopt denitrification or anaerobic ammonium oxidation pathways to remove endogenous nitrogen under hypoxia or anaerobic condition.
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    Regeneration pattern and limitation of understory woody plants of artificial forest in Shanghai
    ZHANG Jing, GUO Xue-yan, DA Liang-jun, WANG Jie,HUI Xiao-ping, GENG Ye
    2013, 2013 (2):  11-19. 
    Abstract ( 2542 )   PDF (947KB) ( 2067 )   Save
    Combining the method of French-Swiss schools and that of British-American schools, species composition, diversity, frequency, regeneration patterns of different communities and structures, limitation factors of understory woody plants in the artificial plantation of Shanghai central city and the Green Belt were studied from 2007 to 2009 in 908 plots. The result showed that: ① The species richness in understory layer were much more abundant than in the upper layer, the species diversity of the needle broad-leaved mixed forest and the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest were much higher than the other community types, and so did the tree-shrub-herb structure and the tree-herb structure compared with the shrub-herb structure. ② 101 woody plant species were detected in the regeneration layer including 33 evergreen species and 68 deciduous species; only 36 species which mainly composed of deciduous broad-leaved trees and native species had the frequency of more than 1%; 〖WTBX〗Ligustrum lucidum〖WTBZ〗 and〖WTBX〗 Cinnamomum camphora〖WTBZ〗 appeared in more than half of the communities,the rates of frequency are 58.6% and 53.7%, respectively. ③ It was suggested that the seed sources and dispersal, light intensity, the soil moisture and the coverage of the regeneration layer were the key limitation of understory vegetation regeneration.
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    Within-community variability of plant leaf N and P contents in Tiantong, Zhejiang Province
    KANG Meng, XIE Yi-ming, XU Yue, XU Yi-lu, YAN En-rong
    2013, 2013 (2):  20-29, 49. 
    Abstract ( 3179 )   PDF (1298KB) ( 2181 )   Save
    Exploring inter- and intra-specific variations in leaf N and P contents and their relationship with other community properties is important for revealing community assembly. In this study a plot with size of 40 m×40 m, containing 46 species and 554 individuals, was selected in an evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) in Tiantong region, Zhejiang Province. The N and P contents in foliage of each individual were quantified. The inter- and intra-specific variations in leaf N and P stoichiometry and their relationship with each of community height, individual size and micro-environmental conditions were analyzed. It was found that ① the mean of N and P contents and N/P was (16.7±5.11) mg·g -1, (0.44±0.25) mg·g -1, and (44.99±23.53) mg·g -1, respectively; ② leaf N and P stoichiometry at community level can be accurately estimated by the weighted mean value resulting from the most abundant species; ③ inter-species scale was responsible for the relatively large variance of leaf N contents, while intra-species scale was accounted for the relatively large variation in P content; and ④ leaf N and P increased with increasing plant light exposure. It was concluded that variation in N and P contents is determined by both inter- and intra species differences, but P content is mainly controlled by community environment under P limited conditions.
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    Study on the spatial pattern of Shanghai crime based upon GIS
    ZHONG Hai-dong, WU Jian-ping, YU Bai-lang, WANG Zhan-hong
    2013, 2013 (2):  30-37, 55. 
    Abstract ( 3185 )   PDF (3172KB) ( 2677 )   Save
    After discussing the advantages of using GIS in urban crime research and reviewing the research status based on GIS in home and abroad, this paper studied then the spatial pattern of Shanghai crimes (robbery, racketeering, theft and fraud) by applying ArcGIS, based on crime data of 2006 from Shanghai Public Security Bureau. The research shows there is an obvious concentration characteristics of the crime events within the outer ring road of Shanghai, especially in the central urban space, and there is a significant time pattern of Shanghai crimes, with the “hot spot” in the People’s Square. The result can be used as a useful support or basis for policy makers and the police departments for active crime attacks and preventions.
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    Method for identifying individual street trees from the cloud data of the vehicle-borne laser scanning points
    WU Bin, YU Bai-lang, YUE Wen-hui, TAN Wen-qi, HU Chun-ling, WU Jian-ping
    2013, 2013 (2):  38-49. 
    Abstract ( 2885 )   PDF (7825KB) ( 2419 )   Save
    This paper presents a new layered extraction method for identifying laser scanning points that constitute an individual street tree using the grid points density information based on the cloud data of the laser scanning points. The characteristic information, including the height and crown diameter, were derived after an individual tree was identified. The original 3D points cloud data were processed by the following steps: establishing regular grids, layering the points cloud based on elevation value, calculating grid points density for each layer, extracting laser scanning points for each layer, identifying individual tree, and deriving characteristic information. The feasibility of the method was proved through case studies. The results show most of the laser scanning points that constitute an individual tree are extracted correctly. And the derived characteristic information was estimated to be as fairly accurate as the in situ data. The proposed method will expand the application domain of VLS and provide a new approach to the urban green space development and management.
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    Relationship between the mean tidal level and the half-tide level in the Yangtze River estuary
    MAO Xing-hua, GU Sheng-hua, MO Dan-feng, LI Qi
    2013, 2013 (2):  50-55. 
    Abstract ( 3136 )   PDF (2109KB) ( 2309 )   Save
    Using the observational data of Wusong, Gaoqiao, Puzhen, and Luchaogang tidal stations of the Yangtze River estuary in recent years, and by the method of single factor linear regression, the relationships between the mean tidal level and the mean half-tide level were analyzed. The results showed that all stations have very good linear relationship between these levels. Based on this relationship, the mean tidal level can be calculated by using the high and low tide data. As the sea level of certain sea area is calculated using its representative station average of the whole point tide level in certain time, in case of the lack of long series of tidal data, the method here can help us to calculate the mean tidal level indirectly, and further to calculate the sea levels effectively.
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    Monitoring of the airborne pollen grains in Shanghai
    HUANG Jian-hua, WANG You-fang, SHEN Chun-lin, LYU Sen-lin
    2013, 2013 (2):  56-62. 
    Abstract ( 2641 )   PDF (825KB) ( 2539 )   Save
    In order to investigate the quantity, species and distribution pattern of the airborne pollen grains in Shanghai, a one-year monitoring project using Cour samplers from October 2009 was carried out in six sites of Shanghai.A total of 5 324 164 pollen grains were collected, ineluding 32 families, 27 genera or species. The largest quantity of the grains was observed in Putuo District and was followed by Songjiang, Zhabei, Pudong, Xuhui and Baoshan District in that order. Songjiang District has the most diverse species of pollen grains (48) and Xuhui has the least (37).The most commonly observed types are 〖WTBX〗Humulus〖WTBZ〗 scandens, 〖WTBX〗Platanus,〖WTBZ〗 Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Gramineae,〖WTBX〗 Ulmus〖WTBZ〗, 〖WTBX〗Artemisia〖WTBZ〗 and 〖WTBX〗 Salix〖WTBZ〗.The peak of the grains distribution occurred during two seasons of the year: spring (March and April) and autumn (September).
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    Present status and development of the birdwatching in mainland China
    CHENG Yi-xin, WANG Jun-yan, HE Xin, MA Zhi-jun
    2013, 2013 (2):  63-74. 
    Abstract ( 2704 )   PDF (1016KB) ( 2936 )   Save
    This study collected and analyzed data on the present status and development of the birdwatching societies, birdwatchers, and birdwatching activites in mainland China through the methods of questionnaire, interview, etc. The study shows that, during the last decade, birdwatching societies and birdwatchers have been growing rapidly. There are over 20 000 birdwatchers in mainland China, over 5 000 of which have joined local birdwatching societies. Birdwatching societies have carried out various activities, such as birding, public environmental education, bird survey, etc. The societies have also worked collaboratively with reserves/parks, NGOs, Schools and local governments. However, fund is the biggest challenge of them, and they need urgent help. This paper, based on the investigation, gives the following suggestions for the development of birdwatching societies: Enhance the level of internal organizational construction; improve the participation and ability of the members on birdwatching societies; strengthen cooperation with governments and media; promote birdwatching ecotourism and enhance the diversity of funding sources.
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    Decreased klotho expression and elevated blood phosphate level in presenilin PS1/PS2 conditional double knockout mice
    WANG Dong, ZHAI Wen-zhu, SU Jing-jing, MENG Bo,ZHAO Zheng, HU Jin-feng
    2013, 2013 (2):  75-83, 91. 
    Abstract ( 4664 )   PDF (1028KB) ( 2167 )   Save
    In this study, we investigated the expression of klotho, an anti-aging gene, and its involvement of premature aging phenotypes of presenilin 1/presenilin 2 conditional double knockout (PS cDKO) mice. The results showed that renal klotho level was significantly decreased in 12-month-old female PS cDKO mice when compared with control mice. Meanwhile, significant elevations of plasma phosphorus but slight reduction of calcium and almost no sign of renal dysfunction were observed. In PS cDKO brains, down-regulated klotho level was observed as early as 3 months of age. These findings indicate a possible role of klotho in the disorders of PS cDKO mice. The declined klotho expression may be responsible for the excess blood phosphate, but it seems that such a moderate decline in klotho level and impaired phosphate metabolism were not sufficient to elicit renal dysfunction in PS cDKO mice. However, as klotho is an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation factor, klotho decline may contribute to the increased oxidative stress and inflammation in PS cDKO mice.
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    Cyclo (L-Pro-L-Phe) dipeptide: the potential phosphodiesterase inhibitors
    WU Jin, LU Xiao-ming, DUAN Ya-le
    2013, 2013 (2):  84-91. 
    Abstract ( 2103 )   PDF (1036KB) ( 1889 )   Save
    A stable GPR41 receptor cell line was used to screen candidate agonist from the secondary metabolites extracted from gulf seaweed aflatoxin c-f-3 in Putian Fujian. The cAMP results have shown that the No.17 compound Cyclo (L-Pro-L-Phe), belonging to cyclic dipeptide, is able to increase intracellular cAMP in a variety of cells (including G41-CHO, G12-CHO, Mock-CHO, SH-sy5y and HEK293). We have demonstrated that No.17 compound induced cAMP increase in a GPCR-independent manner. Co-adminstration of adenylate cyclase activating agent forskolin and No.17 compound can lead to a further increase in cAMP level compared with those treated with forskolin alone. These results have suggested that No.17 compound may induce a sustained elevation of cAMP levels by inhibiting cAMP hydrolysis. Since No.17 compound shared similar chemical structures with some known PDE inhibitors, which may be a potential of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. This is the first report that Cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) could regulate cAMP formation in a variety of cells (G41-CHO, G12-CHO, Mock-CHO, SH-sy5y and HEK293).
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    Compatibility characteristics of acellular porcine heart valve matrix co-crosslinked with procyanidins and glutaraldehyde
    MA Xu-bing, ZHAI Wan-yin, ZHANG Jia-min, ZHU Zi-yan,ZHANG Hong-feng, CHANG Jiang
    2013, 2013 (2):  92-102. 
    Abstract ( 5582 )   PDF (3608KB) ( 2870 )   Save
    The clinical used bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) were prepared from biological tissues by glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking. But the clinical application of BHVs is limited mainly due to calcification, cytotoxicity and remaining immunogenicity. Procyanidins (PC) can crosslink acellular heart valve matrix (AHVM) through hydrogen bond formation and prevent AHVM from calcification. The aim of this study is to modify GA crosslinking method using PC co-crosslinking to produce a much ideal material with higher compatibility for BHV preparation. Porcine aortic AHVM was crosslinked by 8 mg/mL PC for 4 h and then by 1.25 mg/mL GA for 44 h. The co-crosslinked AHVM was tested for cytocompatibility, blood compatibility and immunogenicity. The results showed that the in vitro adhesion rate of valvular interstitial cells on co-crosslinked AHVM was increased by 59% (78.75%~19.75%)when compared with that of GA-crosslinking. There was no difference in hemolysis between co- and GA- or PC-crosslinked AHVM. The co-crosslinked AHVM exhibited significant anti-thrombosis effect ((193±15.5) platelets) when compared with that of GA-crosslinked ((292.6±24.93) platelets). Furthermore, co-crosslinked AHVM displayed lower immunogenicity than that of GA-crosslinked ((49.33±6.3)% vs (95.27±5.26)%, cell adhesive rate). These results suggest that co-crosslinked AHVM has high potential to be used for preparation of BHVs.
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    Association study of MC1R coding region polymorphisms and pigment phenotype in Chinese Han population
    GU Hai-ying, ZHENG Hong-xia, LU Yang-yang, HU Hai-qun, LI Yue-yue,ZHANG Li, HE Ya-nan, WU Qi-han
    2013, 2013 (2):  103-110. 
    Abstract ( 2995 )   PDF (547KB) ( 2210 )   Save
    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Researches on western population indicated that the polymorphism of several candidate regulatory genes including 〖STBX〗MC1R〖STB3〗 could increase the risk for developing skin cancer through influencing human pigment characteristics. In our study, for the first time we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 〖STBX〗MC1R〖STB3〗 was associated with the pigment phenotypic characteristics like skin color in Chinese Han population. 7 polymorphism sites (c.200G>A, c.274G>A, c.359T>C, c.421G>A, c.488G>A, c.497C>G, and c.942A>G) were found in the coding region of 〖STBX〗MC1R〖STB3〗 gene in our samples, among which c.421G>A and c.497C>G were the first time to report polymorphic in Chinese Han population. Additionally, c.942A>G was found to be associated with skin color, its mutant homozygous GG was associated with light skin color (P=0.044, OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.03~0.95). And the mutant heterozygous genotype GA of c.359T>C was associated with less number of freckles (P=0.040, OR=5.76, 95% CI: 1.05~31.53). 〖JP2〗The work indicated that variations in 〖STBX〗MC1R〖STB3〗 coding region indeed had some relation with pigment characteristics in Chinese Han population, which has reference value in clinical analysis.
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    Several inequalities of the $\vec g$-expectation
    YANG Cong, JIANG Long
    2013, 2013 (2):  111-115, 123. 
    Abstract ( 2530 )   PDF (272KB) ( 2120 )   Save
    Based on the related properties of the backward stochastic
    differential equations and the $g$-expectation, Markov inequality,
    Chebyshev inequality and Cantelli inequality of the $g$-expectation
    were proved.
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    Some minimax inequalities for vector valued mappings
    YANG Ruo-yu
    2013, 2013 (2):  116-123. 
    Abstract ( 1704 )   PDF (181KB) ( 1989 )   Save
    By using a linear scalarization function and minimax
    equalities in scalar case, some types of minimax inequalities for
    vector-valued functions were established under natural quasi cone
    convex and properly quasi cone convex assumptions. An example was
    given to illustrate that the result is a generalization of the
    corresponding one in reference.
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    (2,1)-total labelling of some general\\[1mm] crown graphs of circle
    LIU Xiu-li
    2013, 2013 (2):  124-130. 
    Abstract ( 1754 )   PDF (156KB) ( 2191 )   Save
    The coloring problem of (2,1)-total labelling of some
    graphs was related to frequency assignment problems. By using the
    eternal coloring method, a new labelling method according to the
    feature of the general crown graphs of circle was given and the
    (2,1)-total numbers of these graphs was obtained. And the
    (2,1)-total labelling of graphs extends the total coloring of
    graphs.
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    Lower semicontinuity to parametric lexicographic vector equilibrium problems
    FANG Zhi-miao, ZHANG Yu, CHEN Tao
    2013, 2013 (2):  131-135, 145. 
    Abstract ( 1685 )   PDF (280KB) ( 2516 )   Save
    In this paper, a parametric vector equilibrium problem in a
    lexicographic order was first introduced. Then, by using an
    auxiliary problem, the lower semicontinuity of the solution set map
    was established based on the density of the solution set mapping for
    a parametric lexicographic vector equilibrium problem.
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    Representation theorem of generators for BSDEs with infinite time intervals
    ZHANG Heng-min, FAN Sheng-jun
    2013, 2013 (2):  136-145. 
    Abstract ( 2048 )   PDF (289KB) ( 2290 )   Save
    Under the non-uniform Lipschitz condition (in $t$) of the
    generator $g$ with respect to $(y,z)$ for backward stochastic
    differential equations (BSDEs), a representation theorem of
    generators and a converse theorem of solutions were established for
    BSDEs with a finite or an infinite time intervals, which extend some
    existing results.
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    General result on precise asymptotics for self-normalized sums
    LU Zhen-gang, JIANG Yu-qiu
    2013, 2013 (2):  146-153, 159. 
    Abstract ( 1968 )   PDF (348KB) ( 2084 )   Save
    Gien a sequence of i.i.d.~nondegenerate random variables
    with zero means and belonging to the domain of attraction of the
    normal law, by the weak convergence theorem and the tail probability
    inequalities of the independent and identically distributed
    sequence, a general result on precise asymptotics for the
    self-normalized sums with generalized boundary functions has been
    proved. It can describe the relations among the weighted function,
    boundary function, convergence rate and limit value, then the known
    results of this field are improved and extended.
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    Normal families on sequence of omitted functions
    YANG Liu, CHEN Qiao-yu
    2013, 2013 (2):  154-159. 
    Abstract ( 1782 )   PDF (246KB) ( 1784 )   Save
    Let~$\{f_{n}\}$~be a sequence  of meromorphic functions on
    a domain~$D$,~all of whose zeros have multiplicity at least $ 3$,and
    each of which has a multiple pole. Let $\{h_{n}\}$~be a sequence of
    meromorphic functions on~$D$, such that~$\{h_{n}\}$~converges
    spherically locally uniformly to  a function~$h$ which is
    meromorphic and zero-free on $D$. If~$f'_{n}\ne h_{n}$,
    then~$\{f_{n}\}$~is normal on~$D$.
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    Conformal transformation between some Finsler Einstein spaces
    ZHANG Xiao-ling
    2013, 2013 (2):  160-166. 
    Abstract ( 2016 )   PDF (176KB) ( 3359 )   Save
    Liouville's Theorem proved that the Euclidean space can be
    mapped conformally on itself only by a composition of M\"{o}bius
    transformations. For Riemann spaces, Brinkmann obtained general
    results. Little work has been done on Finsler spaces. This paper, by
    navigation idea and properties of conformal map, proved that the
    conformal transformation between Einstein Randers (or Kropina)
    spaces must be homothetic.
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