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    05 July 2011, Volume 2011 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Article
    Diversity, spatial pattern and dynamics of vegetation under urbanization in Shanghai (Ⅵ): Community diversity and its structural characteristics of Shanghai Green Belt
    ZHANG Kai-xuan, CHE Sheng-quan, MA Shao-chu,WANG Rui, DA Liang-jun
    2011, 2011 (4):  1-14,74. 
    Abstract ( 3021 )   PDF (2712KB) ( 2435 )   Save
    An investigation of plant communities was conducted in Shanghai Green Belt and 177 community plots were surveyed. The flora of vascular plant in the study area consisted of 226 species and varieties, 184 genera and 87 families. But a few species dominated the whole belt, the ratio of native trees being only 25%. There were 67 community types, which were divided into 7 vegetation types, most of them were deciduous broad-leaved forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest; however, few of them were of zonal vegetation types. The species diversity of these communities was low. The result showed that the average number of species in the tree layer was 1.68, and in that the shrub layer was 0.92. The community structure was simple, featured as a dumbbell: sparse in the middle and dense on both sides, and generally in the model of “tree with natural herb”. Most of trees are in poor growth.
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    Diversity,spatial pattern and dynamics of vegetation under urbanization in Shanghai(Ⅶ): Dynamics and a better construction method of the near-natural forest in Pudong of Shanghai for recent ten years
    DA Liang-Jun, YANG Jue, HUO Xiao-li
    2011, 2011 (4):  15-23. 
    Abstract ( 2547 )   PDF (647KB) ( 2142 )   Save
    The near-natural forest was constructed in Pudong New Area of Shanghai in 2000. The study was made by tracking investigation on species composition of communities, plant density, plant height, DBH and soil nutrient. Results showed that: After ten years, forests showed a good growth. Species of plants maintained almost unchanged except for small amount of invasive species. However, due to the lack of shade, the mortality of evergreen tree species such as Castanopsis sclerophylla, Machilus thunbergii etc. was high at the first stage of construction. While Ligustrum lucidum and Liquidambar formosana showed a rapid growth and low mortality, gradually dominating the upper stratum, indicating deciduous broadleaved species gradually found their feet and showed up a more stable growth, with soil fertility rising more steadily than that in the early planting period. In response to the problems we found above, a planting model, the bi-synusia model of deciduous and evergreen trees of uneven aged, are put forward, which might play a guidance and reference role in building near-natural urban forests.
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    Diversity, spatial pattern and dynamics of vegetation under urbanizationin Shanghai(Ⅷ): Distribution of native terrestrial wild plants and their applications to urban greening in Shanghai
    TIAN Zhi-hui, CAI Bei-ming, DA Liang-jun
    2011, 2011 (4):  24-34. 
    Abstract ( 3074 )   PDF (1161KB) ( 2800 )   Save
    Through consulting related data, a list of 534 native terrestrial wild plants species in Shanghai was built, which belonged to 65 families and 284 genera, and the distribution status of wild plants in different lands was investigated along a “urban-suburban-rural” gradient in Shanghai area, Sheshan mountain and Dajinshan island, expounding the diversity of terrestrial wild plants influenced by urbanization. By analyzing the families and genera compositions, areal types, life form and distribution status of species, the decisive role of the geographic location, size, habitat type and degree of urbanization for the composition of wild plants was illustrated. According to the distribution of species and adaptation to the environment, the native terrestrial wild plants in Shanghai were divided into five weeds types, such as eurytopic type, urban type, suburban type, suburb type and wild type. The significance and application of native wild plants in urban greening of Shanghai were analyzed.
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    Seedlings photosynthesis traits and non-structural carbohydrate storage of common species in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province
    ZHAO Lei, YANG Hai-bo, WANG Da-li,ZHANG Na, WANG Xi-hua
    2011, 2011 (4):  35-44. 
    Abstract ( 3635 )   PDF (742KB) ( 3540 )   Save
    The photosynthesis traits and the storage of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) of twenty common plants seedlings were studied in this case. The results are as follows. There are lower light compensation point (LCP), lower dark respiration rate (Rd), higher apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) and maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax) in the seedlings of evergreen trees; while the deciduous species show the opposite results. The light saturation point (LSP) of evergreen shrubs is higher than that of evergreen trees. And the other photosynthetic paramaters have no significant difference. Roots are the key place of storage of NSC. The contents of sugar, starch and NSC in root and sugar in stem of evergreen trees seedlings are significantly higher than that of deciduous species, but the contents of starch and NSC in stem have no difference between them. The contents of sugar and NSC in root and starch and NSC in stem of evergreen shrubs are greater than that of evergreen trees, but the contents of starch in root and sugar in stem have no difference between them. Light-demanding species or pioneer species are the type of “fast-growth, low-storage”, and strong shade-tolerant evergreen shrubs are the type of “slow-growth, high-storage”, and photosynthetic capacity and carbohydrate storage of the semi-shade-tolerant evergreen trees are medium.
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    Leaf frost sensitivity and percentage of electrolyte leakage of the evergreen woody species in Tiantong region, Zhejiang Province
    ZHONG Qiang, KANG Meng, GUO Ming, WANG Xi-hua, WANG Liang-yan, YAN En-rong
    2011, 2011 (4):  45-52. 
    Abstract ( 3401 )   PDF (791KB) ( 2215 )   Save
    In this study, leaf percentage of electrolyte leakage was examined by using respectively 26 ℃, 0 ℃ and -5 ℃ temperate treatments, to reflect the leaf frost sensitivity for 59 evergreen woody plants in Tiantong region, Zhejiang province. The objective was to select frost-resistant woody plants for establishing frost-tolerant plantations. The results showed: (1) the most evergreen woody plants acclimatized themselves to 0 ℃, indicating few leaf damage; whereas, -5 ℃ treatment led to a significant increase of leaf percentage of electrolyte leakage for all plants, suggesting a heavy leaf damage; (2) among three dominant families of plants, the frost-resistance was higher in Lauraceae and Fagaceae than in Symplocaceae; and (3) evergreen broadleaf plants was more frost-resistant than conifer species. Therefore, the frost-resistant plants belonging to Lauraceae and Fagaceae families should be preference species in afforestation.
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    Impacts of forest degradation and damage on soil respiration in the Tiantong region, Zhejiang Province
    GUO Ming, KANG Meng, ZHONG Qiang, WANG Xi-hua,DA Liang-jun, YAN En-rong
    2011, 2011 (4):  53-60. 
    Abstract ( 2737 )   PDF (387KB) ( 2166 )   Save
    This paper chose climax evergreen broadleaf forests (EBLF) as a reference, then selected sub-climax forests, secondary coniferous forests, shrubs and grassland to represent different stages of forest degradation, and 4 logging stands to denote forests damage intensity, in the Tiantong region, Zhejiang province. To understand the impacts of EBLF degradation and damage on soil respiration, soil respiration rate and associated influencing factors were measured among above forests. The results showed that: (1) there was a pronounced seasonal pattern of soil respiration among forests; (2) soil respiration rate was the highest in climax EBLF and the grassland, intermediate in coniferous forests and shrub lands, and the lowest in sub-climax EBLF; (3) the logging did not affect soil respiration rate along the forest damage intensity; and (4) soil respiration was determined by soil C/N ratio and soil pH through forest degradation series; specifically, the main factor in the early stage was soil C/N ratio, and in the later stage of degradation was soil temperature. It was concluded that the controlling factor of soil respiration was shifted from biological-based to abiotic-based orientations, through forest degradation.
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    Sensitive periods of teratogenic effects of tributyltin on Xenopus tropicalis embryos
    YUAN Jing, ZHANG Xiao-li, YU Lin, LIU Jun-qi,CAO Qing-zhen, SHI Hua-hong
    2011, 2011 (4):  61-68. 
    Abstract ( 2550 )   PDF (1558KB) ( 2223 )   Save
    Xenopus tropicalis embryos were exposed to 200 ng·L-1 tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) during different periods in the experiement of three days. The percent of survival embryos decreased by 10% in the 3rd, 20% in 3 d treatment groups, respectively. The whole body length reduced by 30% in the 2nd day, 20% in the 3rd day and 39% in 3 d treatment groups, respectively. More than 90% embryos showed malformations in treatment groups. The main characteristic malformations were abnormal eyes, enlarged proctodaeum, narrow fins or absence of fins, bent tails, etc. Compared with the control, the eyes were smaller in the 2nd day and bigger in the 3rd day treatment groups, respectively. The dorsal fins were a little narrower in the 1st day treatment group, both dorsal and ventral fins were much narrower with tail-tip residue or gap near the proctodaeum in the 2nd day treatment group, and the fins were slightly narrower in the 3rd day treatment group, respectively. The results suggest that the malformations in the eyes and fins were more sensitive to different exposure periods.
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    Study of the wave-induced seabed liquefaction failure of the Chengdao Sea at the Yellow River Estuary
    CHANG Fang-qiang, JIA Yong-gang
    2011, 2011 (4):  69-74. 
    Abstract ( 2705 )   PDF (1176KB) ( 2246 )   Save
    The wave-induced seabed liquefaction is the main cause of gedegical disasters at the Chengdao Sea of the Yellow River Estuary, an oil production area. In this paper, a theoretical calculation model was established for assessing the seabed liquefaction, and calculating the liquefaction depth at different drills at the Chengdao Sea; further more, the direction of flow-slide was gotten. Through study some conclusions were gotten. (1) Under extreme sea conditions, the region with larger liquefaction depth lies at the central and southeastern of the Chengdao Sea, the weak soil layer up to 10 m can liquefy. The liquefaction depth can reach 4~8 m at the north, and liquefaction depth at the southwest is relatively little, 〖JP2〗within 3 m. (2) The flow-slide directions of the seabed after liquefaction are as follows, soil at north slide to north, soil at middle firstly slides to east and then to northeast, soil at the southeast may slide to southeast or be residual. The liquefaction depth and slide direction can be used for petroleum engineering design and construction reference.
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    Assessing the ecological assets in coastal zone using remote sensing data: a case study of Baoshan, Shanghai
    SU Pan-pan, GUO Zhong-yang, YE Shu-feng
    2011, 2011 (4):  75-82,93. 
    Abstract ( 2235 )   PDF (2987KB) ( 2218 )   Save
    With remote sensing data, DEM and meteorological data of the coastal zone in Baoshan, Shanghai, we built a coastal indicators system for ecological assets assessment based on the specific ecosystem service of the area. Moreover, we evaluated ecological assets in coastal zone of Baoshan based on an improved total solar radiation model and an ecological total assets model. The results show that total ecological assets in coastal zone of Baoshan are, respectively, 3.226×109 ¥, 2.292×109 ¥ and 3.075×109 ¥ in 1998, 2005 and 2008; it decreases 28.94% and has an average 4.13% reduction per year from 1998 to 2005, and increases 34.16% and has an average 11.39% rise per year from 2005 to 2008. At the same time, the wetland has dominant contribution for the ecological assets in coastal zone, accounting for 92.47% in 1998, 89.91% in 2005 and 92.92% in 2005, respeclively. With driving force analysis, we find that socio-economic factors like population growth, urban planning, and natural factors such as temperature, precipitation and vegetation, are the main reasons for the change of ecological assets in coastal zone of Baoshan, Shanghai.
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    Numerical simulations of effects on urban PBL characters with landuse categeories modification
    ZHANG Chi, SHU Jiong
    2011, 2011 (4):  83-93. 
    Abstract ( 4338 )   PDF (1102KB) ( 4313 )   Save
    ENVI, IDL, GIS and aerial photographs were used to modify landuse data in ARW-WRF within Shanghai area. Firstly, grids were gained with GIS into the same resolution with the input data in WRF, which is too old for present landuse situation in Shanghai. Secondly, irrigated cropland and pasture, grassland, shrubland, loamy sand and silt were partly changed into urban and built-up land grid by grid, so as to be more closer to real situation, and the distribution of buildings was gained, helping to reach more accurate roughness value in UCM according to the 24 landuse categories defined in WRF model. Lastly, both modified and original data were input into WRF in case simulations. The wind field, temperature, and other characters of PBL in spring of Shanghai were gained in the simulation results. It shows that because of landuse types modification, horizontal wind velocity decreases obviously, displaying the urban dragging effects. Meanwhile, the vertical wind velocity increases, being greatly affected by surface warming effects. The higher temperature centers appear in the downwind direction by the effects of surface wind fields. Surface temperature and PBL height are both closer to observation values. The results lead us to discuss the importance of landuse categories input in models, and some other possible reasons causing the difference were mentioned.
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    αCaMKII overexpressions enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in insular cortex of mice
    LIU Ru-qing, DUAN Yan-hong, CAO Xiao-hua
    2011, 2011 (4):  94-103,123. 
    Abstract ( 2507 )   PDF (1882KB) ( 2433 )   Save
    The experiment was designed to study basic electrophysiological characteristics and basal synaptic transmission of insular pyramidal cells in αCaMKII forebrain overexpression mice by patch clamping. The basic electrophysiological results showed that there were no significant differences in the resting membrane potential, action potential and I-V curve of pyramidal cells in insular cortex between wild type and transgenic mice. No significant difference was measured in the frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs. However, compared to the wild type mice, transgenic mice exhibited augmented amplitude of sEPSCs and mEPSCs. There was also no significant difference in PPF curve. The results suggested that forebrain specific overexpression of αCaMKII did not change the basic electrophysiological characteristics and presynaptic transmitter release in insular cortex. The influence of αCaMKII overexpression on the amplitude of EPSCs may be mediated by postsynaptic receptors.
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    Pharmacokinetics and tissues distribution of rosiglitazone in rats
    ZHANG Ling-hong, DUAN Ya-le, LI Yu-bo, WAN Xue-mei, ZHAO Zheng
    2011, 2011 (4):  104-114. 
    Abstract ( 2166 )   PDF (1055KB) ( 2021 )   Save
    A simple, rapid and selective HPLC method was developed and validated to determinate rosiglitazone in rat plasma, tissues and cerebrospinal fluid. Samples were prepared, with a higher extraction recovery (96.72% in plasma, 95.63% in tissues and 90.67% in cerebrospinal fluid), based on a simple methanol protein precipitation. Assay of rosiglitazone was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate pH 6.0 (53∶47, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The method was applied to study pharmacokinetics, distribution of rosiglitazone in rats after a single intragastric administration. The rosiglitazone was rapidly absorbed (Tmax 0.5~1 h) with an elimination half-life of 2.5 hours. The highest levels of the drug were observed in liver and fat while the lowest levels in the brain and spleen. The method was also used for the determination of rosiglitazone in cerebrospinal fluid. The result showed that rosiglitazone can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid, thus providing direct evidence that rosiglitazone can permeate cross blood brain barrier.
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    Meta-analysis of CYP1A1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk among smokers
    CAI Yan-yan, TAN Xiao-ming, ZHENG Hong-xia, GU Hai-ying, ZHAN Xiao-ying, WU Qi-han
    2011, 2011 (4):  115-123. 
    Abstract ( 3287 )   PDF (1660KB) ( 2622 )   Save
    All of the publications were eligible from Medline and Pubmed databases and the information about relationship between CYP1A1 Ile462Val and Msp1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk among smokers was summarized. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 4.2. 29 case-control studies were available. For Ile462Val, meta-analysis revealed that the risk of lung cancer among smokers with Val/Val and Ile/Val genotypes was 1.29 times of those with Ile/Ile genotype (P<0.05) by the random effects model. There was no significant correlation between Msp1 and lung cancer among smokers or non-smokers. These results suggest that CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism is related to the susceptibility of lung cancer among smokers.
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    Community structure and biodiversity of birds in Tuohu Nature Reserve, Anhui Province
    BAO Fang-yin, WANG Song, ZHANG Tao, WANG Bang-zheng, CUI Feng
    2011, 2011 (4):  124-133. 
    Abstract ( 3006 )   PDF (670KB) ( 2323 )   Save
    During April 2008 to May 2009, a sysmetic bird community survey was conducted in Tuohu Nature Reserve, Anhui Province, China. A total of 69 species belonging to 13 orders 33 families were recorded, of which 42 species belong to Palaeartic birds (62.0%), and 6 species to Oriental (8.5%). The species of Paleartic are dominant, and in terms of migration 12 species (16.9%) are residents, while 57 species (83.1%) are migratory birds,of which 2 species are in the national grade-one protection list, 6 species in the national grade-two protection list ,and 31 species in Anhui provincial protection list. The bird species diversity shows clear seasonal variation. The management of the protection of the birds, as well as local resources, is also discussed in this paper. Bird diversity index varies with seasons and the living environment. The data shows that diversity index of the habitat of mire is the maximum (1.368 1), and next to it is the habitat of forest (1.258 6), farmland (0.805 9) and water body (0.739 0). However, the habitat of residential area is the minimum (0.642 0). The evenness index of water habitat (0.380 0) is the maximum, and next to it is that of the mire (0.376 1), forest (0.360 0) and farmland (0.314 2). After all, the index of residential area is the minimum (0.267 7). In Huaihe River Basin, Tuohu Lake survives the winter and thus serves as an important route in the migration for the multitudinous waterfowls on the way, and the function of this basin wetland waterfowl protection. The results indicate that the water birds are facing the threats from the environmental degradation and human activity in the area.
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    Maximum-norm superapproximations for tensor-product quadratic rectangular finite elements in 4D
    DENG Yi-jun
    2011, 2011 (4):  135-141. 
    Abstract ( 2506 )   PDF (448KB) ( 1972 )   Save
    For Dirichlet boundary value problems of Poisson equations, an interpolation operator of projection type in 4D was established. Then by using this operator, weak estimates for tensor-product quadratic rectangular finite elements over regular partitions of a domain were obtained. Based on the obtained results and the estimates for the four-dimensional discrete Green's function, some highly accuracy results of the maximum-norm superapproximations of finite elements were derived.
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