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    A discussion on river network vulnerability in Shanghai based on the PSR model
    CHENG Rui-hui, FAN Qun-jie, WANG Yu-kun, LIU Yao-yi, CHE Yue
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 144-154.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.016
    Abstract420)   HTML9)    PDF (777KB)(286)      
    This paper combines the concept of vulnerability with a study of river network systems. Shanghai, a typical river network area, is selected as the research area. Based on the PSR model, river network vulnerability is evaluated using 13 indicators for human activity and the river network environment; the aim of this study was to explore vulnerability characteristics and driving mechanisms for regional river networks. The results show that:①Urbanization has caused distinct differences in water system characteristics between Shanghai's regions. The river networks in Pudong and Qingpu are densely distributed, but sparse in the central urban area. ②The overall river network vulnerability in Shanghai is intermediate. Extreme and severe vulnerability areas, accounting for 24.64% of the city's total area, are concentrated in the central urban area and the main urban areas of suburbs. The moderate and mild vulnerability areas account for 22.71% and 31.93%, respectively. ③River network vulnerability features spatial clustering with clear heterogeneity; distribution patterns typically show only "high" or "low" aggregation. ④There is significant correlation between the four land use patterns and river network vulnerability, and construction is the main driving factor driving changes in river network vulnerability.
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    Research on service requirements and management strategies for urban parks with extended opening hours in Shanghai
    LIU Na-na, GUO Xue-yan, CUI Yi-chong, ZHANG Hong, LU Jun-yao, DA Liang-jun
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 155-163.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.017
    Abstract372)   HTML14)    PDF (768KB)(274)      
    Based on increasing demand for extended opening hours of urban parks at night, this study explores the satisfaction and service requirements of parks, via questionnaires, from the perspective of visitors and park managers. Based on an analysis of facility status, use characteristics, and park management and maintenance, the study puts forward countermeasures to meet the diverse demands of visitors, strengthen safety, and improve management policies, leveraging the management experience of gate-free urban parks in China and abroad. This study, furthermore, aims to provide a valuable reference for improving the quality of urban parks with extended opening hours.
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    Community structure and gene expression analysis for nitrifier enrichment cultures
    YU Chen-di, HOU Li-jun, ZHENG Yan-ling, LIU Min, YIN Guo-yu, GAO Juan, LIU Cheng, CHANG Yong-kai
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 164-173.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.018
    Abstract513)   HTML12)    PDF (1293KB)(353)      
    Nitrifiers were enriched from the tidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Four kinds of nitrifying groups (accounting for 34.7% of the total reads) were detected based on metagenomics, including the recently discovered complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox), strictly nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira, β-proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Comammox accounted for 48% of the detected nitrifiers. In addition, gene expression patterns of the nitrifier group (according to the classification in Evolutionary genealogy of genes:Non-supervised Orthologous Groupsdatabase) were analyzed based on metatranscriptomics. The present study showed the community structure and gene expression characteristics of nitrifiers enriched from the tidal sediments, especially the newly discovered comammox. Results enriched our knowledge about the nitrifying communities of estuarine environment, which have great significance to the further molecular ecology research of the nitrification processes.
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    State of marine microplastic pollution research and the limitations
    LI Dao-ji, Zhu Li-xin, CHANG Si-yuan, ZHANG Feng, WANG Lu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (3): 174-185.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.03.019
    Abstract602)   HTML40)    PDF (1724KB)(760)      
    Microplastics (less than 5 mm in diameter) are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world's oceans. Marine microplastic pollution has become a global research hotspot and a new frontier in ecological and environmental sciences. The issue has increasingly attracted the attention of scientists, government agencies, and NGOs worldwide. Although the problem of marine plastic pollution was first discovered in the 1970s, it didn't gain attention in the international arena until recent years. Since then, microplastic research has progressed rapidly both globally and in China. However, there are still many problems with the research and response to marine microplastics, requiring further clarification and solutions. This paper first briefly reviews the chronological development of marine microplastic research as well as the role and significance of key events. Thereafter, the paper discusses the state of marine microplastic pollution research and the mitigation efforts in China and abroad, highlighting the current limitations in the research and response to marine plastic and microplastic pollution.
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    The effect of dissolved silicic acid on circular motion behaviors in pennatae: A case study on diatom Navicula arenaria var. rostellata
    WANG Feng, ZHAO Li-xia, ZHU Zheng, HU Wen-si, LIU Quan-xing
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 135-146.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.015
    Abstract440)   HTML14)    PDF (1615KB)(405)      
    Diatoms play an important role in the primary productivity of aquatic systems and in driving the global silicon and carbon cycles in biogeochemistry. Navicula (Navicula arenaria var. rostellata) is a widely distributed diatom species in polluted aquatic and coastal ecosystems. In this study, we treat Navicula as the research object, using f/2+Si culture medium 30 mg/L dSi concentration as a reference to set different dSi concentration gradients (1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 60 mg/L, 120 mg/L, 240 mg/L); based on the Navicula experiments and tracking of cell trajectories and behavior analysis, we explore the effects of different concentrations of dSi on diatom movement behaviors and diffusion coefficients. We found that:Their trajectories display circular motion associated with stochastic disruption. The curvature of the circular arc remains unchanged, and the direction and speed of the motion change significantly at the reverse time point; when the angle is less than 90 degrees; moreover, the velocity decreases before and after the reverse. Their motions display ballistic behavior on short time scales, Brownian-motion on long time scales, and super-diffusion on intermediate time scales. Miniscule and high dSi concentrations effectively inhibit active dispersal, whereas low and intermediate dSi concentrations promote dispersal on diatom cells. Here, our study of individual movement behaviors on diatoms helps to improve our understanding of foraging strategy and aggregation behavior in diatom biofilms; in addition, it provides new ideas on the outbreak of algal bloom, the marine biofouling phenomena, and marine snow phenomena.
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    Evaluation of ecosystem services for urban forests in Shanghai based on a distribution measurement methodology
    HAN Yu-jie, SUN Wen, ZHANG Wen-wen
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (2): 147-155.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.02.016
    Abstract318)   HTML15)    PDF (1858KB)(378)      
    Using continuous observation and the inventory system for forest ecosystems, according to the People's Republic of China standard LY/T 1721-2008 Specifications for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China, combined with forest resource monitoring data from 2016, this study assessed the value of forest ecosystem services in Shanghai. The results showed that the total value of forest ecosystem services in urban forests in Shanghai in 2016 was 12.58 billion yuan and mean value was 127.5 thousand yuan per hectare. The value of the eight service functions was distributed as follows:forest recreation (26.03%), atmosphere environmental purification (22.03%), carbon fixation and oxygen released (20.24%), water conservation (17.14%), biodiversity conservation (9.10%), soil conservation (3.53%), forest nutrition storage (1.84%), contribution of forest to prevent natural calamities(0.09%). From the results of this study, the value of forest recreation was the highest. Forest recreation, atmosphere environmental purification, carbon fixation and oxygen release, and water conservation were the main functions of urban forest services in Shanghai; These features play an important role in building a livable city and establishing "an ecological city".
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    Spatial difference and discussion of water-use efficiency in China under objective constraint
    LIAO Yu-xin, ZHANG Yong, GU Run-zhu
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2019, 2019 (1): 136-143.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2019.01.015
    Abstract364)   HTML11)    PDF (1230KB)(357)      
    The proposal of the Water Saving Society (WSS) and the strictest water resource management system introduced clearer and stricter requirements for water use in China. To calculate the constraint of the set objectives on water use, this study defined Objective Constraint Strength (OCS) for water regulation, and further compared OCS of agricultural and industrial water-use efficiency for 31 provincial regions in China. The study also carried out scenario analysis on seven different types of areas and proposed advice on WSS construction.
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    Analysis and assessment on monthly dynamics of water quality at Taopu industrial zone in Shanghai
    ZHANG Ting-hui, HUANG Min-sheng, MA Ming-hai, ZHANG Wen, CUI He
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2017, 2017 (6): 147-155.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2017.06.014
    Abstract445)   HTML13)    PDF (1029KB)(399)      
    Taking pH, WT, DO, SD, BOD5, CODCr, CODMn, TOC, NH3-N, NO3-N, TN, Chl-a, DP and TP as the primary parameters, four medium or small creeks in Shanghai Taopu industry area are chosen as research rivers to evaluate the water quality, analyze temporal variation of water quality and identify pollution sources, by using analysis method such as principal component analysis, comprehensive pollution index, comprehensive nutritive index, organic pollution index and comprehensive water quality identification index. The research results indicate that Gongye River was the most polluted river in the four rivers, followed by Xiaozhai River and Zhangjin River, and Hongqi River was the best. TN and TP were the primary pollution parameters. DP was the main composition of TP, and NH3-N is the main composition of TN. In industry area, pollution control of small malodorous rivers should focus on source control, and take the integrative measurements like "source control and retention".
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    Analysis on relationship between mosquito larvae breeding and river water environment in Shanghai
    MA Ming-hai, LIU Shan-wen, HUANG Min-sheng, LENG Pei-en
    Journal of East China Normal University(Natural Sc    2017, 2017 (6): 156-163.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2017.06.015
    Abstract398)   HTML13)    PDF (655KB)(515)      
    Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained from 7 rivers in Shanghai from July 2012 to July 2013, in order to determine the effects of river water environment on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes. Fuzzy clustering method was used for evaluation of river water quality. Correlation analysis of larval density and water quality was implemented. Results showed that 3 rivers were considered as positive rivers from total 7 rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the predominant species in the studied regions. High incidence of larvae from urban rivers appeared in late spring-early summer and larval density reached a peak in May. Larval density was positively significant with dissolved phosphate (DP) (p <0.01). Moreover, larval density increased significantly with the increase of Chla concentration (p <0.05) when the concentration of chlorophylla (Chla) was lower than 80 mg/m3. Slow-flowing river might be a potential habitat for some mosquito species under the appropriate conditions of water environment.
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